Chapter 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19 Deck (54):
1

Transports blood throughout the body to allow exchange of substances, respiratory gates, nutrients and waste products between the blood of capillaries and the body's cells

Cardiovascular system

2

Carries blood away from the heart, higher blood pressure

Arteries

3

Carries blood to the heart

Veins

4

Site of substance exchange, smallest, found in tissues

Capillaries

5

Ventricles eject blood

Systole

6

ventricles relax and fill with blood

Diastole

7

What chambers of the heart are systemic

Right atrium, left ventricle

8

What chambers of the heart are pulmonary

Right ventricle, left atrium

9

Blood goes from right side of the heart to the lungs back to the left side of the heart; deoxygenated

Pulmonary circulation

10

Blood goes from the left side of the heart to the body to the right side of the heart; oxygenated

Systemic circulation

11

Form nodal tissue, 1% of the heart, specialized for generating and conducting electrical impulses in the heart

Autorrhythmic cells

12

What is the resting membrane potential for auto rhythmic cells?

-60mV

13

Located in the ceiling of the right atrium, generates action potential

SA node

14

What is the threshold for auto rhythmic cells?

-40mV

15

Comprises 99% of the heart, forms myocardium, pumps blood upon contraction

Contractile cells

16

What is the resting membrane potential for contractile cells

-90mV

17

Atrial depolarization

P Wave

18

Action potential travels down ventricular septum

Q wave

19

Ventricles contract

ST segment

20

Spread depolarization through ventricles

S wave

21

Action potential spreads through the purkinje fibers

R wave

22

Conduction through AV node and AV bundle, atria contract

PQ segment

23

Ventricles repolarize

T wave

24

Contraction of the heart

Systole

25

Relaxation of the heart, both result in 1 directional flow of blood open/close of heart valves

Diastole

26

-Both atria and ventricles in diastole
-Blood fills up atria
-AV valves open
-Semilunar valves close
-Blood moves into ventricles

Rest

27

-SA node cause AP to AV node
-Atria stimulated to contract and blood is pushed into ventricles
-Filling of ventricles are complete

Atrial Systole

28

Maximum blood volume in ventricles at end of atrial contraction

End diastolic volume

29

No change in ventricular blood volume during contraction

Isovolumetric contraction

30

Amount of blood left after contraction in ventricles

Endsystolic volume

31

Volume of blood doesn't change in ventricles during relaxation

Isovolumetric relaxation

32

-Action potential travels to AV node to inter ventricular septum to purkinje fibers
- Ventricles contract and pressure increases in ventricles
-AV valves close, all 4 valves are shut
-Atria repolarize and blood comes into atria

Early ventricular systole

33

Pressure greater in ventricles, causes semilunar valves to open and blood is ejected into vessels

Late ventricular systole

34

Ventricles repolarize, pressure decrease, semilunar valves shut, all 4 valves shut

Early ventricular diastole

35

Pressure decreases, AV valves open, everything is at rest, happens 72 times per minute

Late ventricular diastole

36

Volume of blood ejected by ventricle in one minute

Cardiac output

37

How do you find cardiac output

stroke volume x heart rate

38

What influences cardiac output?

Stroke volume and heart rate

39

Number of beats per minute

Heart rate

40

Volume of blood ejected during one beat

Stroke volume

41

How do you fine stroke volume?

End diastolic volume - end systolic volume

42

Any externa factor that changes the heart rate

Chronotopic agents

43

Gives excitatory response, increases heart rate, activates sympathetic nervous system

Positive chronotropic agent

44

Inhibitory response, decreases heart rate

negative chronotopic agents

45

Stretch of heart wall due to volume of blood before ventricular contraction

pre-load

46

Volume of blood returned to heart

venous return

47

any external factor that change stroke volume by altering contractility

inotropic agents

48

What are some examples of inotropic agents?

calcium

49

more calcium= ___ stroke volume

more

50

less calcium = ____ stroke volume

less

51

Pressure that must be exceeded before blood is ejected from the chamber, amount of pressure sitting on the semilunar valves that must be overcome before ventricular ejection can occur

Afterload

52

More pressure = ____ ejection

more

53

Increase resistance = ____ stroke volume

less

54

make FC for steps

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