Flashcards in Chapter 24 Deck (35):
Explain the blood flow through the kidneys
Oxygenated blood from descending abdominal aorta, renal artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, paratubular capillaries, vasa recta capillaries, loop of henle, venule, renal veins, inferior vena cava
Filters blood, convert filtrate to urine
Transport urine to bladder
Stores 1L of urine
Eliminates urine out of the body
Increases the absorption of calcium from small intestine to increase blood calcium concentration
What are the 6 functions of the kidney?
Forms calcitriol, regulation of ion levels and acid base balance, produce erythropoietin, regulate bp, gluconeogenesis, waste elimination
How do the kidneys regulate ion levels and acid base balance?
alter blood levels of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions
What stimulates the production of erythropoietin?
Low blood oxygen levels
Stimulates bone to create bone marrow
How do the kidneys control blood pressure?
Excrete fluid into urine, release renin for production of angiotensinogen II to increase blood pressure
Required for production of angiotensinogen II that increases blood pressure
How does the kidney engage in gluconeogenesis?
Produce glucose from noncarbohydrate resources maintain normal blood glucose levels
Contributes to maintain pH and production of urine
___% are cortical nephrons
____% are juxtamedullary nephrons
Nephron that helps with the regulation of salts
Filters blood after blood is brought in by afferent arteriole
Surrounds the glomerulus, creates capsular space
Reabsorbs water, ions, fats, proteins, sodium, glucose into peritubular capillaries
Proximal convoluted tube
Water reabsorption to vasa recta capillaries
Descending loop of Henle
Na and Cl reabsorption
Ascending loop of Henle
Cells that bind to antidiuretic and aldosterone hormone, helps with absorption and secretion
Cells that regulate blood and urine pH; some reabsorption into peritubular capillaries; secretion from peritubular capillaries
Brings fluid to renal papilla; contains principle and intercalated cells that help with some absorption and secretion
Specialized region of the nephron that regulates blood pressure
Where are granular cells located?
What are granular cells stimulated by?
stretch or sympathetic nervous system
What happens to granular cells when the blood pressure decreases?
granular cells contract
What is the function of granular cells?
Epithelial cells in thew all of the distal convoluted tube, detects NaCl and K levels; signals granular cells to release renin if there is a change
What is freely filtered through the filtration slits of podocytes?
water, glucose, ions, amino acids, some hormones
What is not freely filtered through the filtration slits of podocytes?
Formed elements, large proteins
Converts angiotensinogen to angiostensinogen II