Chapter 22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (53):
1

Are bacteria prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

Prokaryotic

2

Are viruses prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

None

3

Are fungi prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

Eukaryotic

4

What type of infectious agent can be killed by antibiotics?

Bacteria

5

What diseases are associated with bacteria?

Strep throat, tuberculosis, syphilis, diptheria, tetanus, lyme disease, salmonella, anthrax

6

What disease are associated with viruses?

Common cold, flu, polio, mumps, measles, hepatitis, rubella, HIV, herpes, ebola

7

What diseases are associated with fungi?

athlete's foot, diaper rash, yeast infection

8

Parasites that must enter the cell to replicate, cannot be killed with antibiotics

Viruses

9

Produce spores and release prokaryotic enzymes

Fungi

10

Single celled infections agents that multiply fast in tissue

Bacteria

11

Engulf foregins substances, first to arrive at inflammatory response and most abundant

Neutrophil

12

Destroy parasites, associated with allergy and asthma response

Eonsinophil

13

Increase fluid movement, release histamine that increases vasodilation and capillary permeability

Basophil

14

Lymphatic structures that engulf foreign substances

Lymphocytes (B and T-cells)

15

Engulf foreign materials and stays/arrives later in immunity responses; live in tissues

Macrophages

16

Blood lymphatic structure that release chemicals to destroy unhealthy cells

Natural killer cells

17

Connective tissue and viscera structure; secretes histamine

Mast cells

18

Skin and mucous membranes; engulf foreign substances

Dendritic cells

19

Small soluble proteins that communicate between cells, control development and behavior of effector cells and regulate inflammatory response

Cytokines

20

Defense mechanisms of immunity we are born with

Innate immunity

21

Specific B and T- lymphocytes which respond to foreign substances to which we a exposed to during our lifetime

Adaptive immunity

22

Contrains sebaceous oil gland secretions that lower the pH preventing the growth of bacteria; sweat gland secretions that wash away other microbes

Intact skin

23

Contains lysozyme that destroy the bacterial cell wall, flow of mucus washes bacteria/virus off mucus membrane

Mucus and cilia

24

Engulf cells, chemical secretions to promote inflammation or destroy pathogens and parasites

Cellular defenses

25

Proteins that attack foreign microorganisms

Antimicrobial proteins

26

What is an example of antimicrobial microorganisms?

Interferons

27

Binds to neighboring cell which stimulates macrophages and natural killer cells to destroy the cell

Interferons

28

What happens in the first step of inflammation?

Release of chemicals, basophils mast cell of damage tissue

29

What happens in the second step of inflammation?

Basophil and mast cells release histamine to initiate an inflammatory response

30

What does histamine do during inflammation?

Vasodilation and increase permeability of WBC

31

What happens in the third step of inflammation?

Recruitment of leukocytes, more from blood into tissue

32

What leukocyte first arrives during an inflammatory response?

Neutrophils

33

What are the effects of inflammation?

increased fluid, protein, immune cells in tissue, hydrostatic pressure in interstitial space, movement into lymphatic capillaries; prevents infection

34

What are the 5 cardinal signals of inflammation?

redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of function

35

Caused by increased blood flow and more hemoglobin

Redness

36

Caused by increased blood flow and metabolic activity

Heat

37

Caused by increased fluid loss from capillaries

Swelling

38

Caused by stimulation of pain receptors

Pain

39

What does fever affect?

promote Interferon activity, inhibit bacteria and virus reproduction, increase activity of adaptive immunity, accelerate tissue repair

40

Chemicals that are released to increase body temperature in response to toxins and trauma

Pyrogen

41

Immunoglobin that binds to a specific antigen, released by plasma cells

Antibody

42

Reacts with antibodies or immune cells of the affected object

Antigen

43

Antigens encountered by macrophage will bring it to helper T-cell

Antigen recognition

44

What are the 3 subtypes of T-cells?

Helper, Cytotoxic, memory

45

Identifies antigen as foreign, involved in most aspects of immunity; have receptors to recognize antigens, will release cytokines

Helper T-cell

46

What is the effect of cytokines?

Stimulate cytotoxic T-cells, B-cell division

47

Chemicals released that are toxic to cells

Cytotoxic T-cell

48

Formed after 1st exposure of antigen, causing a faster response

Memory B and T-cells

49

Have antibodies located on the surface of the cell that bind to the antigen. Will replicate really fast when foreign antigen gets attached

B-cells

50

Cells that give us more antibodies by dividing rapidly

Plasma Cells

51

Various protein chains that tag/destroy foreign particles; signals immune cells to attack

Antibodies

52

Antibodies that attach to B-cells

Antibodies as receptors

53

Antibodies that bind to foreign antigen, signals immune cells to attack

Free antibodies