Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (53):
Are bacteria prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
Are viruses prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
Are fungi prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
What type of infectious agent can be killed by antibiotics?
What diseases are associated with bacteria?
Strep throat, tuberculosis, syphilis, diptheria, tetanus, lyme disease, salmonella, anthrax
What disease are associated with viruses?
Common cold, flu, polio, mumps, measles, hepatitis, rubella, HIV, herpes, ebola
What diseases are associated with fungi?
athlete's foot, diaper rash, yeast infection
Parasites that must enter the cell to replicate, cannot be killed with antibiotics
Produce spores and release prokaryotic enzymes
Single celled infections agents that multiply fast in tissue
Engulf foregins substances, first to arrive at inflammatory response and most abundant
Destroy parasites, associated with allergy and asthma response
Increase fluid movement, release histamine that increases vasodilation and capillary permeability
Lymphatic structures that engulf foreign substances
Lymphocytes (B and T-cells)
Engulf foreign materials and stays/arrives later in immunity responses; live in tissues
Blood lymphatic structure that release chemicals to destroy unhealthy cells
Natural killer cells
Connective tissue and viscera structure; secretes histamine
Skin and mucous membranes; engulf foreign substances
Small soluble proteins that communicate between cells, control development and behavior of effector cells and regulate inflammatory response
Defense mechanisms of immunity we are born with
Specific B and T- lymphocytes which respond to foreign substances to which we a exposed to during our lifetime
Contrains sebaceous oil gland secretions that lower the pH preventing the growth of bacteria; sweat gland secretions that wash away other microbes
Contains lysozyme that destroy the bacterial cell wall, flow of mucus washes bacteria/virus off mucus membrane
Mucus and cilia
Engulf cells, chemical secretions to promote inflammation or destroy pathogens and parasites
Proteins that attack foreign microorganisms
What is an example of antimicrobial microorganisms?
Binds to neighboring cell which stimulates macrophages and natural killer cells to destroy the cell
What happens in the first step of inflammation?
Release of chemicals, basophils mast cell of damage tissue
What happens in the second step of inflammation?
Basophil and mast cells release histamine to initiate an inflammatory response
What does histamine do during inflammation?
Vasodilation and increase permeability of WBC
What happens in the third step of inflammation?
Recruitment of leukocytes, more from blood into tissue
What leukocyte first arrives during an inflammatory response?
What are the effects of inflammation?
increased fluid, protein, immune cells in tissue, hydrostatic pressure in interstitial space, movement into lymphatic capillaries; prevents infection
What are the 5 cardinal signals of inflammation?
redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of function
Caused by increased blood flow and more hemoglobin
Caused by increased blood flow and metabolic activity
Caused by increased fluid loss from capillaries
Caused by stimulation of pain receptors
What does fever affect?
promote Interferon activity, inhibit bacteria and virus reproduction, increase activity of adaptive immunity, accelerate tissue repair
Chemicals that are released to increase body temperature in response to toxins and trauma
Immunoglobin that binds to a specific antigen, released by plasma cells
Reacts with antibodies or immune cells of the affected object
Antigens encountered by macrophage will bring it to helper T-cell
What are the 3 subtypes of T-cells?
Helper, Cytotoxic, memory
Identifies antigen as foreign, involved in most aspects of immunity; have receptors to recognize antigens, will release cytokines
What is the effect of cytokines?
Stimulate cytotoxic T-cells, B-cell division
Chemicals released that are toxic to cells
Formed after 1st exposure of antigen, causing a faster response
Memory B and T-cells
Have antibodies located on the surface of the cell that bind to the antigen. Will replicate really fast when foreign antigen gets attached
Cells that give us more antibodies by dividing rapidly
Various protein chains that tag/destroy foreign particles; signals immune cells to attack
Antibodies that attach to B-cells
Antibodies as receptors