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Flashcards in Chapter 23 Deck (66):
1

What are the general functions of the respiratory system?

Air passageway, site of gas exchange, detection of odors, sound production

2

What is the conduction portion of the respiratory system?

Nasal cavity to terminal bronchiole

3

What is the gas exchange portion of the respiratory system?

respiratory bronchiole, alveoli

4

What is considered the upper respiratory tract?

Nasal cavity to pharynx

5

What is considered the lower respiratory tract?

larynx and below

6

What lines most of the respiratory system?

Pseudostratified columnar epithelial

7

Lines respiratory tract

Ciliated

8

Produce mucus, works wit cilia

Goblet cell

9

What is the function of the nasal conchae?

Warm, moistens, humidifies, cleans air

10

What is the function of the paranasal sinuses?

Lighten weight of skull and amplification of voices

11

What 4 bones make up the paranasal sinuses?

Frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoid, maxillary

12

What are the 3 parts of the pharynx?

Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

13

End of nasal cavity to uvula, only carries air

nasopharynx

14

contains palatine and lingual tonsils; provides defense agains ingested or inhaled foreign materials

Oropharynx

15

Serves as a common passageway for food and air

Laryngopharynx

16

What makes up the larynx?

Thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, epiglottis

17

opening between the true vocal cords and the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx.

Rima glottidis

18

Produce sound as air passes between them; covered by mucus

True vocal folds

19

Protects the vocal cords; have no function in sound production

fasle vocal folds

20

C-shaped cartilage that is not complete

Tracheal cartilage

21

Muscle posterior side of the trachea

Trachealis muscle

22

What makes up the trachea?

Tracheal cartilage, trachealis muscle

23

What are the three regions of the bronchial tree?

Primary, secondary, tertiary

24

Isolated subdivisions of each lobe supplied with air by a tertiary bronchi

Bronchopulmonary segment

25

Subdivide into thin airways called alveolar ducts and lead into alveolar sacs; smallest

Respiratory bronchioles

26

Last of the conducting airway of bronchioles

Terminal bronchioles

27

Wall of ____ lack cartilage

Bronchioles

28

Closing of bronchiole vessel; caused by parasympathetic

Bronchoconstriction

29

Opening of bronchiole vessel; caused by sympathetic

Bronchodilation

30

Squamous epithelial cells; gas exchange is faster

Type 1 alveolar cell

31

Makes surfactant, coat lining alveoli, surface tension to prevent collapsing

Type 2 alveolar cell

32

ingest and remove debris

Macrophages

33

Medial side of lungs

Hilum

34

What structures are found at the hilum of the lung?

Bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymph vessels, autonomic nerves

35

Amount of air that flows in and out of the respiratory tract with each breath

Airflow

36

How does airflow increase?

Increase airflow and resistance

37

How does airflow decrease?

decrease airflow and resistance

38

Difference between atmospheric pressure and intrapulmonary pressure

Pressure gradient

39

All of the factors that make it more difficult to move air from the atmosphere through the respiratory passageway into the alveoli

Resistance

40

Causes the muscle to contract and change range and depth of breathing

Ventral respiratory group

41

Receives sensory input, AP sent to VRG

Dorsal respiratory group

42

What are the 2 parts of the medullary respiratory center?

Ventral respiratory group, dorsal respiratory group

43

Smooth transitions between inhalation and exhalation

Pontine respiratory center

44

Increase size container = ____ pressure

decrease

45

What happens during passive breathing (inhalation)?

Ventral respiratory group neurons depolarize, AP sent to skeletal muscle, diaphragm flattens, thoracic cavity increases

46

What happens during passive breathing (exhalation)?

AP from ventral respiratory group stops, muscles relax, diaphragm puffs up, ribs pulled down, decrease thoracic cavity

47

what happens during active breathing (inhalation)?

AP sent to dorsal respiratory group and ventral respiratory group, changes rate/depth of breathing causing an increase in thoracic cavity, decrease intrapleural and intrapulmonary pressure

48

What happens during active breathing (exhalation)?

AP to accessory muscles and ventral respiratory group stop muscles to relax

49

Sensory receptors that detect chemical concentration of hydrogen ions and respiratory gases

Chemoreceptors

50

Within medulla oblongata, monitor pH of CSF

Central chemoreceptors

51

Found in carotid body and aortic body; monitor blood, pH, and CO2 levels

Peripheral chemoreceptors

52

What signals us to breathe faster and deeper

Too much H+ and CO2

53

What signals us to breath slower

Too little H+ and CO2

54

High levels of ___ tell peripheral chemoreceptors to breath faster

CO2

55

Pressure exerted by each gas within a mixture of gases and measured in mmHg

Partial pressure

56

Gas moves from high to low partial pressure

Partial pressure gradient

57

Where does O2 move from to where?

From alveoli to pulmonary capillaries

58

Where does CO2 move from where to where?

Pulmonary capillaries to alveoli

59

Amount of gas in alveoli

Ventilation

60

Blow flow reaching alveoli

Perfusion

61

What is ventilation and perfusion controlled by?

Bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation

62

Amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin

Oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve

63

What determines the oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve?

Partial pressure of oxygen (more=higher saturation)

64

What influence the saturation curve?

High elevation, sea level, temperature

65

How does high elevation influence the saturation curve?

Decrease PO2=decrease hemoglobin saturation

66

What happens to the saturation curve if you increase temperature?

Decrease hemoglobin saturation