Flashcards in Chapter 23 Deck (66):
What are the general functions of the respiratory system?
Air passageway, site of gas exchange, detection of odors, sound production
What is the conduction portion of the respiratory system?
Nasal cavity to terminal bronchiole
What is the gas exchange portion of the respiratory system?
respiratory bronchiole, alveoli
What is considered the upper respiratory tract?
Nasal cavity to pharynx
What is considered the lower respiratory tract?
larynx and below
What lines most of the respiratory system?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelial
Lines respiratory tract
Produce mucus, works wit cilia
What is the function of the nasal conchae?
Warm, moistens, humidifies, cleans air
What is the function of the paranasal sinuses?
Lighten weight of skull and amplification of voices
What 4 bones make up the paranasal sinuses?
Frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoid, maxillary
What are the 3 parts of the pharynx?
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
End of nasal cavity to uvula, only carries air
contains palatine and lingual tonsils; provides defense agains ingested or inhaled foreign materials
Serves as a common passageway for food and air
What makes up the larynx?
Thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, epiglottis
opening between the true vocal cords and the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx.
Produce sound as air passes between them; covered by mucus
True vocal folds
Protects the vocal cords; have no function in sound production
fasle vocal folds
C-shaped cartilage that is not complete
Muscle posterior side of the trachea
What makes up the trachea?
Tracheal cartilage, trachealis muscle
What are the three regions of the bronchial tree?
Primary, secondary, tertiary
Isolated subdivisions of each lobe supplied with air by a tertiary bronchi
Subdivide into thin airways called alveolar ducts and lead into alveolar sacs; smallest
Last of the conducting airway of bronchioles
Wall of ____ lack cartilage
Closing of bronchiole vessel; caused by parasympathetic
Opening of bronchiole vessel; caused by sympathetic
Squamous epithelial cells; gas exchange is faster
Type 1 alveolar cell
Makes surfactant, coat lining alveoli, surface tension to prevent collapsing
Type 2 alveolar cell
ingest and remove debris
Medial side of lungs
What structures are found at the hilum of the lung?
Bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymph vessels, autonomic nerves
Amount of air that flows in and out of the respiratory tract with each breath
How does airflow increase?
Increase airflow and resistance
How does airflow decrease?
decrease airflow and resistance
Difference between atmospheric pressure and intrapulmonary pressure
All of the factors that make it more difficult to move air from the atmosphere through the respiratory passageway into the alveoli
Causes the muscle to contract and change range and depth of breathing
Ventral respiratory group
Receives sensory input, AP sent to VRG
Dorsal respiratory group
What are the 2 parts of the medullary respiratory center?
Ventral respiratory group, dorsal respiratory group
Smooth transitions between inhalation and exhalation
Pontine respiratory center
Increase size container = ____ pressure
What happens during passive breathing (inhalation)?
Ventral respiratory group neurons depolarize, AP sent to skeletal muscle, diaphragm flattens, thoracic cavity increases
What happens during passive breathing (exhalation)?
AP from ventral respiratory group stops, muscles relax, diaphragm puffs up, ribs pulled down, decrease thoracic cavity
what happens during active breathing (inhalation)?
AP sent to dorsal respiratory group and ventral respiratory group, changes rate/depth of breathing causing an increase in thoracic cavity, decrease intrapleural and intrapulmonary pressure
What happens during active breathing (exhalation)?
AP to accessory muscles and ventral respiratory group stop muscles to relax
Sensory receptors that detect chemical concentration of hydrogen ions and respiratory gases
Within medulla oblongata, monitor pH of CSF
Found in carotid body and aortic body; monitor blood, pH, and CO2 levels
What signals us to breathe faster and deeper
Too much H+ and CO2
What signals us to breath slower
Too little H+ and CO2
High levels of ___ tell peripheral chemoreceptors to breath faster
Pressure exerted by each gas within a mixture of gases and measured in mmHg
Gas moves from high to low partial pressure
Partial pressure gradient
Where does O2 move from to where?
From alveoli to pulmonary capillaries
Where does CO2 move from where to where?
Pulmonary capillaries to alveoli
Amount of gas in alveoli
Blow flow reaching alveoli
What is ventilation and perfusion controlled by?
Bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation
Amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin
Oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve
What determines the oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve?
Partial pressure of oxygen (more=higher saturation)
What influence the saturation curve?
High elevation, sea level, temperature
How does high elevation influence the saturation curve?
Decrease PO2=decrease hemoglobin saturation