Chapter 26 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 26 Deck (64):
1

What is part of the accessory organs?

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, pancreas, gallbladder

2

what is part of the GI tract?

oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, anal canal

3

Introduction of solid and liquid nutrients into the oral cavity; 1st step of digesting and absorbing nutrients

Ingestion

4

Voluntary and involuntary muscular contractions for mixing and moving materials through the GI tract

Motility

5

Process of producing and releasing substances such as enzymes, acids, and bile into the GI tract

Secretion

6

Break down of ingested food into smaller pieces

Digestion

7

Activity of specific enzymes to break down chemical bonds to change larger molecules into smaller molecules

Chemical digestion

8

Ingested material is physically broken down into smaller units by chewing and mixing without chemicals

Mechanical digestion

9

Membrane transport of digested molecules, electrolytes,vitamins, and water from GI tract into blood or lymph

Absorption

10

Expulsion of digested indigestible components that are not absorbed

Elimination

11

Contains simple columnar epithelia, lamina propria, connective tissues with blood and lymph capillaries

Mucosa

12

What is the function of mucosa?

Absorption and secretion

13

contains connective tissue with blood and lymph vessels, MALT

Submucosa

14

Contains circular and longitudinal smooth muscle, myenteric nerve plexus

Muscularis

15

What is the function of the muscularis layer?

Allow peristalsis and mixing, stretching of the wall

16

Connective tissue covered by visceral peritoneum

Serosa

17

How is the digestive system regulated?

AP sent to CNS, affects nerves VII, IX, X; go to salivary glands, muscularis layer of GI tract, pancreas

18

Detect pressure in particular region of GI tract

Stretch Baroreceptors

19

Detect specific substances within the lumen

Chemical baroreceptors

20

Ap sent to CNS, autonomic response to cranial nerves VII, IX, X; causes secretion and smooth muscle contraction

Long reflex

21

Ap sent to nerves of myenteric nerve plexus, smooth muscle contraction

Short reflex

22

Chewing involving teeth and tongue

Mastication

23

Moisten food to break down starch, dissolve food molecules, clean/inhibit bacteria

Chemical breakdown of food

24

Made of stratified squamous epithelium; protection from abrasion of food

Wall of esophagus

25

Closes off all the time unless food comes in

Superior esophageal sphincter

26

Closes off area right before stomach unless food comes in; prevents acid in stomach from damaging esophagus

inferior esophageal sphincter

27

Phase in swallowing when mastication forms bolus, tongue pushes food back to oropharynx

Voluntary phase

28

Phase in swallowing when sensory receptors are stimulated, AP sent to swallowing center, causes the elevation of soft palate and uvula, movement of larynx

Pharyngeal phase

29

Phase in swallowing when movement through the esophagus

Esophageal phase

30

What is the function of the stomach?

Mechanical and chemical digestion

31

Depressions within mucosal layer, ends to gastric gland

Gastric pit

32

Digested food in stomach

Chyme

33

Cells that line the lumen and gastric pit, secretes alkaline mucin protection; prevents stomach acid from damaging stomach

Surface mucous cells

34

Cells that are below the base of the gastric pit and gland; secretes acidic mucin to create acidic environment

Mucous neck cells

35

Cells that secrete intrinsic factor to absorb vitamin B12 and HCl to drop pH and convert pepsinogen to pepsin

Parietal cells

36

Cells that secrete pepsinogen which eventually converts to pepsin

Chief cells

37

Cells that secrete gastrin that stimulates stomach secretions and motility

G-Cells

38

What is the stimulus of the cephalic phase?

Thinking, smelling, tasting food

39

AP is sent to medulla oblongata, AP sent to stomach via vagus nerve, results in an increase in contractile force and increase in secretion by gastric glands

Cephalic phase

40

Bolus enters stomach, baroreceptors and chemoreceptors stimulate, AP sent to medulla oblongata and stomach via vagus nerve, results in an increase in gastric gland secretion and contractile force

Gastric phase

41

Chyme enters duodenum, inhibitory AP sent to medulla oblongata, results in decrease in contractile force and gastric gland secretions

Intestinal phase

42

___ is released during the intestinal phase. Causes a decrease in contractile force and secretion

CCK

43

Spontaneously depolarize, AP sent to muscularis layer, results in establishing rhythm in muscular contractions

Pacemaker cells

44

Increases surface area, slows down food particles in the small intestine

Mucosa

45

Absorb a majority of chyme's lipids, contains lymph capillaries and made up of simple columnar epithelium

Microvilli

46

Includes peyer patches, lymph and blood capillaries, and nerves in small intestine

Submucosa

47

Contains longitudinal and circular muscles in small intestine

muscularis

48

What 3 cells are in the intestinal glands?

goblet, unicellular gland, enteroendocrine

49

Chyme mixes with digestive secretions

Segmentation

50

Movement of materials down GI tract

Peristalsis

51

Short reflex; stimulus is food entering stomach, AP sent to ileocecal sphincter, relaxation, contents move to large intestine

Gastroileal reflex

52

Ring of smooth muscle, closed until stimulus happens

Ileocecal sphincter

53

Ribbon of muscle, longitudinal muscle of muscularis layer, help bunch up large intestine

Teniae coli

54

What is peristalsis like in the large intestine?

weak and sluggish

55

Distention stimulates muscle contraction

Haustral churning

56

Moves fecal matter from transverse colon to cecum

Mass movements

57

Oxygenated blood to liver

Hepatic artery

58

Deoxygenated blood with nutrients, collects nutrients from small intestine

Hepatic portal vein

59

Breakdown, balance, create nutrients; store glucose, minerals, vitamins, synthesize bile and cholesterol, remove harmful substances, regulate amino acids

Hepatocytes

60

Allows liver to have dual blood supply

Hepatic portal system

61

Acinar cells form pancreatic juices

Exocrine pancreas

62

Pancreatic islets release hormones

Endocrine pancreas

63

Increase blood sugar

Glucagon (alpha cells)

64

Decrease blood sugar

Insulin (beta cells)