Chapter 19 - The Reach of Imperialism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19 - The Reach of Imperialism Deck (33):
1

Socialism

a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.

2

Utopia

an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.

3

Robert Owen

a Welsh social reformer and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement. He worked in the cotton industry in Manchester before setting up a large mill at New Lanark in Scotland.

4

Karl Marx

a German-born scientist, philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Born in Trier to a middle-class family, he later studied political economy and Hegelian philosophy.

5

Communism

a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.

6

Proletariat

workers or working-class people, regarded collectively (often used with reference to Marxism).

7

Democractic

relating to or supporting democracy or its principles.

8

Communist Manifesto

an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

9

Thomas Malthus

an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. Malthus himself used only his middle name, Robert.

10

David Richardo

a British political economist. He was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith, and James Mill.

11

Capitalism

an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.

12

Dictatorship

a form of government where a country or a group of countries is ruled by one person or political entity, and exercised through various mechanisms to ensure that the entity's power remains strong.

13

Laissez-Faire

a policy or attitude of letting things take their own course, without interfering.

14

Adam Smith

a Scottish economist, philosopher, and author. He was a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy, and was a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

15

Friedrich Engels

a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist, and businessman. He founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx.

16

Declaration of Women's Rights

also known as the Declaration of the Rights of Woman, was written in 1791 by French activist, feminist, and playwright Olympe de Gouges in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

17

Suffrage

the right to vote in political elections.

18

Romanticism

an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

19

Realism

the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.

20

Naturalist

an expert in or student of natural history.

21

Beethoven

a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers.

22

Mark Twain

Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.

23

Cartography

the science or practice of drawing maps.

24

Social Darwinism

the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals.

25

Charles Darwin

an English biologist, naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

26

Albert Einstein

a German-born theoretical physicist. He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics. Einstein's work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.

27

Relativity

the absence of standards of absolute and universal application.

28

Sigmund Freud

an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

29

Modernism

a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

30

Impressionism

a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.

31

Monet

Oscar-Claude Monet was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting.

32

Natural Selection

the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. It is a key mechanism of evolution, the change in heritable traits of a population over time.

33

Pyotr Illyich

often anglicized as Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, was a Russian composer of the late-Romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular music in the classical repertoire.