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Flashcards in Chapter 21 Deck (45):
1

Ifluenza Pandemic

an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population.

2

Surrealism

a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.

3

Cubism

an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture.

4

Jazz

a music genre that originated amongst African Americans in New Orleans, United States,[1] in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in Blues and Ragtime.

5

Functionalism

belief in or stress on the practical application of a thing, in particular.

6

Prohibition Era

the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment. prohibition.

7

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929. On this date, share prices on the New York Stock Exchange completely collapsed, becoming a pivotal factor in the emergence of the Great Depression.

8

Great Depression

a devastating economic recession beginning on October 29, 1929, after the crash of the U.S. stock market, lasting nearly a decade.

9

The New Deal

a group of U.S. government programs of the 1930s. President Franklin D. Roosevelt started the programs to help the country recover from the economic problems of the Great Depression.

10

FDR

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

11

Maginot Line

The Maginot Line, named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany.

12

Ramsey McDonald

James Ramsay MacDonald, FRS was a British statesman who was the first Labour Party Prime Minister, leading Labour governments in 1924, 1929–1931 and, having been expelled from the party he had helped to found, a National Government from 1931 to 1935.

13

Irish Republican Army

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is any of several armed movements in Ireland in the 20th and 21st centuries dedicated to Irish republicanism, the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.

14

The Easter Rising

The Easter Rising, also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916.

15

The Weimar Republic

an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place.

16

Mohandas Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.

17

Igbo Women's War of 1929

Aba Women's Riots (November-December 1929) The "riots" or the war, led by women in the provinces of Calabar and Owerri in southeastern Nigeria in November and December of 1929, became known as the "Aba Women's Riots of 1929" in British colonial history, or as the "Women's War" in Igbo history.

18

Kenya

a country in East Africa with coastline on the Indian Ocean. It encompasses savannah, lakelands, the dramatic Great Rift Valley and mountain highlands.

19

Pan-Africa

a worldwide intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent.

20

Civil Disobedience

the refusal to comply with certain laws or to pay taxes and fines, as a peaceful form of political protest.

21

Indian National Congress

a broad-based political party in India. Founded in 1885, the Congress led India to independence from Great Britain, and powerfully influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire.

22

Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943.

23

Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.

24

The Black Shirts

The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, commonly called the Blackshirts or squadristi, was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.

25

Corporatist State

Corporate statism or state corporatism is a political culture and a form of corporatism whose adherents hold that the corporate group which is the basis of society is the state. The state requires all members of a particular economic sector to join an officially designated interest group.

26

Egypt

a country linking northeast Africa with the Middle East, dates to the time of the pharaohs.

27

Adolf Hitler

a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

28

Anglo

a prefix indicating a relation to the Angles, England, the English people, or the English language, such as in the term Anglo-Saxon language.

29

Egyptian Treaty

a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Egypt.

30

Five Year Plan

(especially in the former Soviet Union) a government plan for economic development over five years. The first such plan in the Soviet Union was inaugurated in 1928.

31

Command Economy

an economy in which production, investment, prices, and incomes are determined centrally by a government.

32

Ghana

nation on West Africa’s Gulf of Guinea, is known for diverse wildlife, old forts and secluded beaches, such as at Busua.

33

Belgian Congo

a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Colonial rule in the Congo began in the late 19th century.

34

Fascism

an authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization.

35

Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, also known as Pablo Picasso, was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.

36

Abstract Expressionism

a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s.

37

Nazi Party

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (help. · info), abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and practised the ideology of Nazism.

38

Mass Communication

the imparting or exchanging of information on a large scale to a wide range of people.

39

New Economic Policy

The New Economic Policy (NEP) was based around a tax called prodnalog, which was a tax on food. By introducing a tax, Lenin was essentially admitting that he was taxing something people owned. Requisition had forcibly taken food under War Communism.

40

Collective Farms

a jointly operated amalgamation of several small farms, especially one owned by the government.

41

Purge

rid (someone) of an unwanted feeling, memory, or condition, typically giving a sense of cathartic release.

42

Authoritarianism

the enforcement or advocacy of strict obedience to authority at the expense of personal freedom.

43

SS

a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers' Party in Nazi Germany.

44

Secret Police

a police force working in secret against a government's political opponents.

45

The Spanish Civil War

widely known in Spain simply as The Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil) or The War (Spanish: La Guerra), took place from 1936 to 1939 and was fought between the Republicans, who were loyal to the democratic, left-leaning and relatively urban Second Spanish Republic in an alliance of convenience with the Anarchists, versus the Nationalists, a falangist, Carlist, and a largely aristocratic conservative group led by General Francisco Franco.