Chapter 25 - The Cold War Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 25 - The Cold War Deck (46):
1

Containment

a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy. It is best known as the Cold War policy of the United States and its allies to prevent the spread of communism..

2

Cold War

a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and powers in the Western Bloc.

3

Truman Doctrine

an American foreign policy created to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was first announced to Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947:547-9 and further developed on July 12, 1948 when he pledged to contain Soviet threats to Greece and Turkey.

4

Marshall Plan

an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion[1] (approximately $130 billion in current dollar value as of June 2016) in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.

5

NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between several North American and European states based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.

6

Warsaw Pact

formally the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance and sometimes, informally, WarPac was a collective defence treaty among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.

7

Cuneiform

a system of writing first developed by the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia c. 3500-3000 BCE.

8

Berlin Wall

a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.

9

Khrushchev

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev was a politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War.

10

Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong or Mao Tse-tung, also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary and founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949, until his death in 1976.

11

Cuban Missile Crisis

also known as the October Crisis, the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.

12

Arms Race

a competition between nations for superiority in the development and accumulation of weapons, especially between the US and the former Soviet Union during the Cold War.

13

Satellite Staes

a political term that refers to a country or nation that was formally independent, but is now politically and economically influenced by another country.

14

Domino Theory

the theory that a political event in one country will cause similar events in neighboring countries, like a falling domino causing an entire row of upended dominoes to fall.

15

East Germany

formally the German Democratic Republic, was an Eastern Bloc state during the Cold War period.

16

West Germany

the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990.

17

The Peoples Republic

a title used by certain republican states. Initially associated with populism (people's movements: Völkisch movement, Narodnik, others), it eventually became associated with countries adhering to communism, after the creation of the Soviet Union and China.

18

The Great Leap Foward

an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China from 1958 to 1962.

19

The Cultural Revolution

formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement that took place in China from 1966 until 1976.

20

The Gang of Four

a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials.

21

The Red Guards

a fanatic student mass paramilitary social movement mobilized by Mao Zedong in 1966 and 1967, during the Cultural Revolution.

22

Bay of Pigs Invasion

a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.

23

Space Race

the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union and the United States, for supremacy in spaceflight capability.

24

The Iron Curtain

the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.

25

Sputnik I

the first artificial Earth satellite.

26

PRI Party

a Mexican political party founded in 1929, that held power uninterruptedly in the country for 71 years from 1929 to 2000, first as the National Revolutionary Party, then as the Party of the Mexican Revolution.

27

Samosa

or samoosa, is a fried or baked dish with a savoury filling, such as spiced potatoes, onions, peas, lentils, macaroni or noodles. Pine nuts can also be added.

28

Sandinista National Liberation Front

a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.

29

Guerilla

a member of a small independent group taking part in irregular fighting, typically against larger regular forces.

30

Pinochet

Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte was a Chilean general, politician and the military ruler of Chile between 1973 and 1990; he remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998.

31

Fidel Castro

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was a Cuban revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.

32

Batista

a Spanish or Portuguese surname (although in Portuguese more common in the spelling Baptista), literally meaning "batiste".

33

Juan Peron

Juan Domingo Perón was an Argentine lieutenant general and politician.

34

Eva Peron

María Eva Duarte de Perón was the second wife of Argentine President Juan Perón and served as the First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952.

35

Organization of American States

or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.

36

Sphere of Influence

a country or area in which another country has power to affect developments although it has no formal authority.

37

Cooperatives

a farm, business, or other organization that is owned and run jointly by its members, who share the profits or benefits.

38

Richard Nixon

an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States from 1969 until 1974, when he became the only U.S. president to resign from office.

39

Henry Kissinger

an American diplomat and political scientist who served as the Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

40

Operation Bootstrap

the name given to a series of projects which transformed the economy of Puerto Rico into an industrial and developed one.

41

Prague Spring

a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.

42

Duvalier

also known as Papa Doc, was the President of Haiti from 1957 to 1971. He was elected president in 1957 on a populist and black nationalist platform and successfully thwarted a coup d’état in 1958.

43

Salvador Allende

Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.

44

detente

the easing of hostility or strained relations, especially between countries.

45

Dissidence

protest against official policy; dissent.

46

Helsinki Accords

an agreement signed by 35 nations that concluded the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, held in Helsinki, Finland.