Chapter 11 - The Age of Exploration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - The Age of Exploration Deck (24):


a conqueror, especially one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.



a country or area under the full or partial political control of another country, typically a distant one, and occupied by settlers from that country.



belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism.


Balance of Trade

the difference in value between a country's imports and exports.


The Compass

an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic "cardinal directions", or "points".


Joint Stock Company

a company whose stock is owned jointly by the shareholders.


Triangular Trade

a multilateral system of trading in which a country pays for its imports from one country by its exports to another.


Colombian Exchange

the widespread transfer of animals, plants, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries


Middle Passage

the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade.


Treaty of Tordesillas

To divide trading and colonizing rights for all newly discovered lands of the world located between Portugal and Castile (later applied between the Spanish Crown and Portugal) to the exclusion of other European nations


Henry the Navigator

an important figure in 15th-century Portuguese politics and in the early days of the Portuguese Empire.


Christopher Columbus

an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer, and citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean.


Vasco de Gama

a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.


Hernan Cortes

a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.


Zheng He

a Hui court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during China's early Ming dynasty.


Ferdinand Magellan

a Portuguese explorer who organised the Castilian expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.


Spice Trade

refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe. Spices such as cinnamon, cassia, cardamom, ginger, pepper, and turmeric were known and used in antiquity for commerce in the Eastern World.


Encomienda System

created by the Spanish to control and regulate American Indian labor and behavior during the colonization of the Americas.


Dutch East India Company

originally established as a chartered company in 1602, when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on Dutch spice trade.



a group of indigenous peoples of South America and historically of the Caribbean.


The Philippines

a Southeast Asian country in the Western Pacific, comprising more than 7,000 islands.


Fort Jesus Mombasa

Imposing, 16th-century, Portuguese coastal fort with museum displaying Kenyan archeological finds.


Kongo Kingdom

an African kingdom located in west central Africa in what is now northern Angola, Cabinda, the Republic of the Congo, the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as the southernmost part of Gabon.


Menin Tribe

a social division in a traditional society consisting of families or communities linked by social, economic, religious, or blood ties, with a common culture and dialect, typically having a recognized leader.