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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (82):
1

Define personality

The overall organization of psychological characteristics- thinking feeling and behaving— that differentiates us to act consistently across time and situations

2

Define disposition

Broad, pervasive, encompassing, ways of relating to particular types of people or situations

3

Define trait

A relatively stable characteristic or quality that may respect a portion of ones personality; a quality used to explain an individuals behaviour across time and situations

4

Define psychological states

Momentary feelings and thoughts that change depending on the situation and time

5

What is a common assumption in many trait models of personality

Traits have a normal distribution throughout the population

Most people have moderate levels of a specific trait

6

What makes the prediction of behaviour difficult

That personality is composed of several different traits that combine to influence specific behaviours

7

What are two examples of trait models

Cattells trait personality model

Digmans five factor model

8

What is Cattells model

Proposes that there are 16 personality factors called source traits that capture personality

9

What are the 16 personality factors outlined by cattell

Warmth
Reasoning
Dominance
Liveliness
Social boldness
Rule consciousness
Sensitivity
Vigilance
Abstractedness
Privateness
Apprehension
Openness to change
Self reliance
Perfectionism
Tension
Emotional stability

10

What does digmans personality suggest

All people can be described in terms of the prevalence of five global factors

11

What are digmans 5 factors

Openness to experience

Conscientiousness

Extraversion

Agreeableness

Neuroticism

12

Define openness to experience

Trait including level of curiosity, the opposite of being closed minded

13

Define conscientiousness

Trait comprising striving for achievement and self-discipline

14

Define extraversion

Trait involving level of assertiveness and energetic approach to the world

15

Define agreeableness

Trait involving general compliance and positive approach toward others

16

Define neuroticism

Trait comprising feelings of tension and nervousness

17

Which personality factor is also linked to health behaviours and mortality

Conscientiousness

18

What are the two perspectives of personality development

Humanistic psychology

Cognitive behavioural approach

19

Define humanistic psychology

Psychological approach that focuses on personal responsibility human growth personal striving and individual dignity

20

What term is associated with the humanistic

Self-actualization

21

Define self-actualization

An individuals attempt to be the best he or she can be or a desire to fulfill ones potential

22

Who is two of the humanist psychologists who contributed greatly to the field of personality study

Carl Rogers

Abraham Maslow

23

What does Rogers believed

That when there is a discrepancy between a persons self perceptions and what is being experienced, this person might deny what is actually happening

24

What did Abraham Maslow publish

A hierarchy of needs in a five tiered triangular model

25

What does maslows hierarchy of needs suggest

That when our basic human needs are met we strive to meet higher needs

26

What is the base of the pyramid

Physiological needs
- food water sleep and shelter

27

What is the second tier of the pyramid

Safety needs

- personal and social settings

28

What is the third tier of the pyramid

Social needs

- feelings of belonging connections to others and the acts of giving receiving love

29

What is the forth tier of the pyramid

Esteem needs

- can be internal or external
- self respect and achievement
- recognition and status

30

What is the fifth tier of the pyramid

Self actualization

- the constant striving to make the most of ones special abilities

31

What is the cognitive behavioural approach

Behaviour was determined by interactions involving reward and punishment with the environment

32

What does the learning perspective of the cognitive behavioural approach suggest

All behaviour is learned through experience and this perspective discarded notions of disposition drives or instincts

33

What approach does B.F skinner belong to

Cognitive behavioural approach

34

What did BF skinner argue about personality

Behaviour followed by a reward would increase in probability of reoccurrence, whereas behaviour followed by punishment would decrease in probability of reoccurrence

35

What theory does Albert Bandura belong to

Cognitive behavioural approach

36

What did Albert Bandura argue

That people’s behaviour is highly influenced by their self efficacy, the belief of ones capabilities to achieve a goal or an outcome

37

Define self efficacy

The belief in ones capabilities to achieve a specific goal or outcome

38

Define the social learning theory

Suggests people are active agents in shaping their behaviours, influenced by their inner drives and environments

39

What theory did Bandura emphasis

Social learning theory

40

What does the social learning theory include

Observational learning (modelling)

41

Define the observational learning

Learning through observing others behaviours

42

What is the interactionist approach

Interplay between a person and the environment that determines specific behaviours of the individual

43

Define ethical principles

Guidelines that shape professional judgement and behaviour

44

Risk taking

Narrowing the margin of safety both physically and psychologically

45

Sensation seeking

Seeking of varied novel complex and intense sensations and experiences and the willingness to take multiple risks for the sake of such experiences

46

Define competitiveness

Desire to engage in and strive for success

47

What does research suggest about stimulus seekers

They have higher physiological activation levels or chronic levels of high excitation which are rewarded when they take risks in sport

48

What are the differences between high risk and low risk athletes big 5 personality

High risk athletes scored highest in emotional stability, consciousness and energy

Non risk athletes scored highest in openness

49

Does sensation seeking decline with age?

Yes

50

What is required for success at the elite level

Set high personal standards

Monitor progress toward these standards

Be highly organized

Manage the pressure and expectations of significant others such as parents coaches teammates and partners

51

Define personal standards perfectionism

Refers to establishing high personal performance standards and self orientated achievement striving

52

Define evaluative concerns perfectionism

Reflects aspects of the negative social evaluation including excessive self-criticism, concerns over mistakes and doubts about actions

53

What are two main dimensions of perfectionism

Personal standards

Evaluative concerns

54

What is ECP typically associated with

Poor outcomes and other indicators of maladjustment such as negative emotions dysfunctional thoughts and burnout

55

What does unhealthy perfectionism consist of

High PSP and high ECP

56

What does healthy perfectionism consist of

High but realistic goal striving (PSP) but relatively low ECP

57

Gaudreau and Thompson proposed a 2X2 model of perfectionism that examines __

The main effects of ECP and PSP

58

What are the four distinct subtypes of perfectionism in the model of perfectionism

1) pure personal standards perfectionism is captured by low ECP and high PSP

2) mixed perfectionism is composed of both high ECP and high PSP

3) pure evaluative concerns perfectionism is represented by high ECP and low PSP

4) non perfectionism is captured by low ECP and low PSP

59

What is associated with lower levels of total burnout

What was higher

Pure PSP

Pure ESP

60

Who developed a dualistic model of passion (DMP)

Vallerand

61

What are the two types of passion

Harmonious passion

Obsessive passion

62

Define harmonious passion

Engaging in an activity as part of ones identify and for the pleasure of the activity

63

Define obsessive passion

Involves a more rigid and uncontrolled urge to engage in activities because of external control or feelings of guilt

64

What type of coping is HP positivity related to

Task oriented coping (problem solving)

65

What coping strategy is OP positively related with

Disengagement and avoidance strategies with athletic goal attainment

66

What coping strategy is positively associated with performance

Both HP and OP

67

Define mental toughness

Personal characteristics that allow individuals to cope with stress and anxiety while remaining focused on competition demands

68

What are psychological characteristics associated with mental toughness

Control
Competitiveness
Concentration
Confidence
Commitment
Determination
Desire
Focus
Emotional intelligence
Resilience
Persistence
Optimism

69

What is one of the first models of mental toughness who created it

4C’s by Clough

70

What is the 4C model

Mentally tough people who encounter negative experiences

1) appraise the situation as a CHALLENGE to be over come

2) believe they have personal CONTROL over the experiences

3) have CONFIDENCE they can overcome these experiences

4) have a strong COMMITMENT to achieving personal goals

71

What personality types had a positive experience with exercise

Extraversion and conscientiousness

72

What personality type had a negative association with exercise

Neuroticism

73

The relationship between personality and exercise is ____ and there is a ____ association between the two

Small

Minor

74

What personality traits did not have an association with exercise

Openness
Agreeableness
Psychoticism

75

Define type A personality

Blend of ambition low patience competitiveness high organization and hostility with agitated behaviour patterns

76

Define industriousness ambition

Trait comprising aspects of achievement striving and self discipline

77

Describe type A personality based on the five factor model

High extraversion
High neuroticism
High conscientiousness
Low agreeableness

78

Is there a positive association between type a personality and exercise

Yes

79

What are negative health behaviours type a personality’s also experience

Smoking
Drinking

80

Define extraversions activity trait

Trait involving a general tendency for a fast lifestyle high energy fast talking and keeping busy

81

Is extraversions activity trait a reliable and strong predictor of exercise

Yes

82

Can personality traits be changed

Essentially unchangeable