Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

Sport Psychology > Chapter 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (68):
1

Define motivation

The internal processes such as your needs thoughts and emotions that give your behaviour energy and direction

2

____ can help us understand the strength intensity and persistence of motivated behaviour

Energy

3

What are three approaches to understanding motivation for behavioural change

Behavioural approaches

Cognitive approaches

Cognitive-behavioural approaches

4

What is the behavioural approach for motivation

An approach to understanding motivated behaviour that focuses on conditioning or learning from the environment

5

What is the cognitive approach of motivation

An approach to understanding motivated behaviour that emphasizes the role of thought patterns and cognitive habits

6

What is the cognitive behavioural approaches motivation

Approaches to understanding motivated behaviour that outline the reciprocal influence between cognitions and behaviour

7

What are the models (theory) of motivation and behavioural change

Transtheoretical model

Theory of planned behaviour

Social cognitive theory

Self determination theory

Achievement goal theory

8

What is the transtheoretical model

A framework to understand how individuals initiate and adopt regular physical activity

Proposes that individuals move through a temporal sequence of 5 stages

9

What are the five stages of the transtheoretical model

Precontemplation

Contemplation

Preparation

Action

Maintenance

10

Define precontemplation

A stage of change in which individuals do not consider exercising

11

Define contemplation

A stage of change in which individuals are considering exercising in the next 6 months

12

Define preparation

A stage of change in which individuals have taken small steps toward becoming more physically active

13

Define action

A stage of change in which individuals have begun exercising in the past 6 months

14

Define maintenance

Stage of change in which individuals exercise and have done so for more then 6 months

15

What are the factors influencing stage progression in the transtheoretical model

Self efficacy

Decisional balance
- advantages and disadvantages of behavioural change

Processes of change
- strategies that individuals use to progress through the stages of change

16

Theory of planned behaviour

Personal and social factors influencing intention to engage in a behaviour

17

The TPB stipulates that the most proximal determinant of behaviour is ____

Intention

18

Define intention

A persons readiness to perform a behaviour

19

The intention behaviour relationship demonstrates ____ fluctuation with ____ relationships occurring with distal versus proximal measures

Temporal

Weaker

20

What are the three main antecedents that influence behavioural intention

Attitude

Subjective norms

Perceived behavioural control

21

Define attitude

Positive or negative evaluations of engaging in a behaviour

22

Define behavioural beliefs

Consideration of the consequences of engaging in a behaviour and evaluation of these consequences

23

Define subjective norms

Perceived social pressures to perform a behaviour from personal and or environmental sources

24

Normative beliefs

Perceptions of the values and importance that significant others place on behavioural engagement

25

Perceived behavioural control

The extent to which behaviour is volitional

26

Define control beliefs

Perceived barriers and facilitators of engaging in a behaviour

27

Define social cognitive theory

The personal, behavioural and environmental factors that affect and determine behaviour

28

Define reciprocal determinism

Three sets of influences— person environment and behaviour — all interact to influence one another

29

What are the constructs embedded within SCT

Observational learning

Goals

Outcome expectations

Outcome expectancies

Self-regulation

Behavioural capacity

Self-efficacy

30

Define observational learning

Behaviour is learned and acquired by watching the actions and outcomes of others behaviours

31

Define goals

Ambitions that direct people’s behaviour

32

Define outcome expectations

Behaviour is a function of its expected positive and negative consequences

33

Define outcome expectancies

Expectations that a valuable outcome will follow a given behaviour

34

Define self-regulation

Behaviour is self-directed and is initiated monitored and evaluated by the individual in a way that is consistent with accomplishing personal goals

35

Define behavioural capacity

Behaviour is dependent on the individuals knowledge and skills

36

Define self efficacy

Beliefs in ones capabilities to organize and execute the course of action required to produce given attainments

37

What are the four sources of self efficacy

Mastery experience

Vicarious experience

Social persuasion

Physiological and affective states

38

Define mastery experience

Past performance success and failure for similar behaviours influence self-efficacy

39

Define vicarious experience

Modelled behaviours are associated with the development and change in self efficacy

40

Define social persuasion

Verbal and nonverbal feedback from significant knowledge others

41

Define physiological and affective states source of self efficacy

Physical and emotional cues associated with performance and behaviour

42

Define the self determination theory

A global theory of human motivation and development

43

What is the main focus of the SDT framework

The extent to which behaviours such as sport and exercise participation are undertaken volitionally as opposed to being controlled by some external agent or contingency

44

What are the five mini theory’s associated with the SDT

Cognitive evaluation theory

Organismic integration theory

Causality orientations theory

Basic psychological needs theory

Goal contents theory

45

Explain the cognitive evaluation theory

Specifies how various conditions shape the development of intrinsic motivations

Importance of competence and autonomy to intrinsic motivation

46

Explain the organismic integration theory

Describes the extent to which behaviour is motivated for different extrinsic reasons that represent varying degrees of internalization

47

Define causality orientations theory

Uses personality level constructs to describe individual differences in the degree to which people are autonomous as opposed to controlled

48

Define basic psychological needs theory

Concerned with the nature and function of psychological needs for competence autonomy and relatedness in relation to motivation well being and behaviour change

49

Define the goal contents theory

What people strive to attain

The suggestion that the beneficial effects of pursuing intrinsic goals occur regardless of attainment

50

What is the organismic integration theory continuum of motivation

And the SDT continuum

OIT:
Amotivation
Intrinsic regulation

SDT:
External regulation
Introjected regulation
Identified regulation
Integrated regulation

51

Define amotivation

The absence of motivation

52

Define intrinsic regulation

Activity is undertaken because it is enjoyable interesting stimulating or self rewarding

53

Define external regulation

Activities are preformed to fulfill an external demand achieve a reward or avoid punishment

54

Define introjected regulation

Activity is engaged in to avoid negative emotions

55

Define identified regulation

Physical activity participation is linked to important and valued goals

56

Define integrated regulation

Physical activity participation is consistent with a persons identity

57

Define competence

Feeling effective and capable when undertaking challenging tasks

58

Define autonomy

The feeling that one has choice and is in control of ones behaviour

59

Define relatedness

Feeling meaningful connections with others in environments such as exercise

60

For an individual to initiate and maintain any behaviour change the person must experience ___

Competence

61

Define autonomy support

An interpersonal style associated with the provision of choices and options

62

Define structure

An interpersonal style associated with the provision of feedback and the clarification of expectations

63

Define involvement

An interpersonal style whereby individuals feel others are invested in their health and well being

64

Define achievement goal orientation

A theory of motivation that focuses on differences in how individuals evaluate competence and define success and failure

65

Define task goal orientation

Focuses on past performance or knowledge as the origin of perceptions of competence

66

Define ego goal orientation

Performance evaluations are based on comparisons with others as the determinant of competence

67

Define avoidance goals

An individual is focused on avoiding a negative outcome (failure)

68

Define approach goals

An individual is focused on approaching a positive outcome (success)