Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (27)
What are the 3 main parts of the personality that Freud suggests?
- Id: Instinctual desire (thirsty so grab slurpy)
- Super ego: Internalized standards (You can’t grab the slurpee, thats so rude)
- Ego: mediates between urges and outside world (you can’t grab the slurpee but you can get your own)
Explain what psychoanalysis is?
Examination of the patients life in order to correct and balance disruption in their personality
What are the 5 stages in Freudian psychology, what age are they at, erogenous zone and activities?
1. Oral: 0-2: Mouth: Sucking, biting, chewing
2. Anal: 2-4: Anus: Bowel and bladder control
3. Phallic: 4-6: Genitals: Masturbation
4. Latency: 6-puberty: NA: repression of sexual desire
5: Genital: puberty-onwards: Genitals: sexually mature
What are the pros and cons of psychodynamic theory?
Pro: first to talk about childhood personality development, provided a therapeutic approach
Con: Overemphasis on sex (male perspective/gaze), flawed clinical data, not falsifiable
Explain the 3 factors of Classical conditioning.
- the unconditioned stimulus: food
- the neutral stimulus: bell
- the conditioned response: drool at bell
How would classical conditioning be used to treat unwanted fetish?
Unconditioned stimulus: fetish
Neutral stimulus: salt pill
Conditioned response: lack of arousal from fetish
What is operant conditioning?
Conditioning using negative or positive reinforcement
What are the 2 primary reinforcers?
Sex and Food
Does Reinforcement increase or decrease behaviour?
Increase! Positive reinforcement adds something positive and negative reinforcement decreases something negative
Will punishment increase or decrease a behaviour?
Decrease. Positive punishment adds something unpleasant and Negative punishment takes away something positive
Give an example of how Operant conditioning can be used to change an unwanted fetish?
Positive Punishment: Pain every time you see the fetish
What is social learning theory?
We learn behaviours from behaviours modelled to us
Explain how Social learning theory could help someone deal with an unwanted fetish?
They can practice behavioural rehearsals; see good behaviour modelled and then practice
What is social exchange theory?
Describes how people try to maximize gain/reward and minimize loss/cost.
Use social exchange theory to explain how someone with an unwanted fetish may be able to deal with that scenario?
Find a partner that is open and willing to the fetish or a partner that’s willing to help?
What are the 4 components of Social exchange theory?
1. Risk assessment: balance of reward and cost
3. Comparison level
4. Comparison level for alternative
What do cognitive theories look at?
Cognitive theories look at how thought processes influence behaviour
If someone has a unwanted fetish, how could they correct it using cognitive theory?
Examine the thought processes that make other methods of arousal unsatisfying, maybe some false belief can be removed and other things, disconnected from the fetish, can also become a source of arousal
What are the 2 biological theories of sexuality?
1. Genetic theory 2. Sociobiological theory
What is genetic theory?
Examining the effect of genetics on behaviour, including on hormones, sexual orientation, reproductive cycles
What is socio biological theory?
Socio-biological theory uses evolutionary biology to explain social behaviours
What is the Dual control method trying to explain?
Claims that biological and physiological factors interact
That sexual responses are governed by excitement and inhibition
What is sociological theory?
When institutions such as religion, family, or culture govern how sexuality is expressed
What is social script theory?
The idea that we follow the path of “normal” in society so that our lives are easier
What is the ecological model?
The idea that social and psychological aspects will influence our sexuality
What does feminist theory have to say about sexuality?
That the “norm” is usually based on the male perspective