Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (30)
Why do we use the term STI instead of STD?
So as to put emphasis in the pathogen (invisible to the naked eye) rather than the signs of disease
What are 2 sources of STIs that are not bacterial or viral? How are they treated?
Fungal or Parasitic. Antifungal medication and insecticides/antibacterials
What 4 factors influence an individuals likely hood of contracting an STI?
1. Prevalence of the STI in your community
2. Infectiousness of the pathogen
3. An individuals sexual behaviour
4. The sexual behaviour of a partner/spouse
What is the most common STI in Canada? What is the most common demographic?
Chlamydia. In young women and men ages 20-24.
What are the symptoms of Chlamydia? What are the long term consequences of untreated Chlamydia? What causes it? How is it spread? How is it diagnosed? How is Chlamydia treated?
Often asymptomatic/white discharge/burning/pain/inflammation. Infertility. Chlamydia trachomatis. Sexual intercourse (anal or vaginal or oral). By urine sample or vaginal swab. Anti-bacterial medications.
What demographic is affected by gonorrhea? What are the symptoms of gonorrhea? What are the long term consequences of untreated gonorrhea? What causes it? How is it spread? How is it diagnosed? How is gonorrhea treated?
Men who have Sex with Men & travellers. Yellow green discharge, throat pain (oral sex), inflammation, burning. PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) infertility in women. Bacterial. Sex, Birth, Mouth to mouth kissing. *. Antibiotics.
What demographic is affected by syphilis? What are the symptoms of syphilis? What are the long term consequences of untreated syphilis? What causes it? How is it spread? How is it diagnosed? How is syphilis treated?
MSM and Travellers. Phase 1: Painless hard round sores on genitals Phase 2: painless raised bumps on the skin, fever Phase 3: Ulcers and serious neural damage. Increased risk of HIV, neural damage, ulcers, death. Caused by Treponema palidum bacterium. Sex (vaginal/anal/oral), Birth. Clinical examination, Sex history. Penicillin.
Can antiviral drugs cure HSVI or HSVII?
No, there’s no cure, it stays dormant BUT antivirals can prevent or shorten outbreaks
What is genital herpes caused by?
Herpes simplex virus II
What demographic is affected by herpes? What are the symptoms of herpes? What are the long term consequences of untreated herpes? What causes it? How is it spread? How is it diagnosed? How is herpes treated?
Noone specific. Red bumps, head aches, muscle aches, swollen lymph glands, fever. None. Herpes Simplex II. Surfaces, Kissing, Sex. Not usually. Can be treated by antivirals but not cured.
What percentage of canadians will be infected with HPV in their lifetimes?
What do strains 16 & 18 of HPV cause? What do strains 6 & 11 of HPV cause?
16 & 18: cervical cancer
6 & 11: genital warts
What demographic is affected by HPV? What are the symptoms of HPV? What are the long term consequences of untreated HPV? What causes it? How is it spread? How is it diagnosed? How is HPV treated?
. Genital warts. Some can cause cervical cancer. Human papilloma virus. Anal and vaginal intercourse; sometimes skin to skin. Anti-viral medications
What happened during the 80s-90s in terms of HIV history?
AIDs epidemic. No effective treatment.
What happened in 1996?
The first ARV was discovered; antiretroviral drug
Despite ARVs in use, what is a problem experienced by those in low income countries?
1. Timely access to ARV drugs
2. Adhering to a ARV regime
How many people Worldwide live with HIV? How many Canadians?
Close to 40M. Close to 70K.
Who are the 3 main demographics affected by HIV?
2. Injection drug users
3. People from countries with a high prevalence
What demographic is affected by HIV? What are the symptoms of HIV? What are the long term consequences of untreated HIV? What causes it? How is it spread? How is it diagnosed? How is HIV treated?
MSM, injection drug users, high prevalence comm. Crushing symptoms of other infections. AIDS/ Death. Human immunodeficiency virus. Intercourse any other exchange of bodily fluids. Testing for antibodies. Antiretroviral drugs.
What are some key ways that HIV is being prevented?
- Treating infected mother’s to prevent HIV in child
- HAART; reduces viral load to an untransmisable level
- Access to condoms
- Safe injection sites
Where is hep A the most common?
- In closed communities (prison), where contaminated food spreads disease
Where is Hep B the most common?
In MSM and communities where contaminated foods spread disease
What demographic is Hep C common in?
Prevalent among HIV positive men that have sex with men
How is Hep A transmitted?
fecal-oral routes; including oral anal sex
What is the difference in treatment between Hep A, Hep B and Hep c?
Hep A has to be treated based on condition
Hep B and C can be cured with antiretroviral drugs + interferon injections
What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis? What is a good prevention method?
Yellow discharge in women of asymptomatic. Male and female condoms.
What are the 2 ways pubic lice and scabies can be caught?
1. Direct sexual contact 2. Non-direct through sheets and towels
What is moniliasis? How is it treated?
A vaginal yeast infection. Oral or topical drugs
What is bacterial vaginosis? What is the common demographic?How is it treated?
The overgrowth of naturally occuring bacteria in the vagina. Pregnant women. Oral or inserted drug