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Flashcards in Chapter 3 & 4 Deck (73)
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1

What are the 3 main challenges when studying human sexuality?

1. Research subject honesty
2. Finding a representative sample (usually it’s bold liberal ppl who volunteer)
3. Finding an appropriate research method (balancing invasiveness with accuracy)

2

What are 2 scenarios that disqualify a study from being random?

Non-random sampling can include a scenario where the participants are chosen based on their availability or willingness to participate, the participants might not accurately represent the target population

3

Explain the difference between median and mode.

Median: central tendency aka the middle number

Mode: the most frequent number/answer

4

When did the first modern textbook about sex come out?

1886!

5

The first modern text on sex, psychopathia sexualis, had a key flaw, what was it?

It pathologized alot, especially same sex relationships

6

What was revolutionary about Kinsley? What was a problem with his approach?

He was the first to do large scale interviews on sex. There was sampling bias in that it was quite white washed and the people willing were usually very liberal

7

What was revolutionary about Masters and Johnsons? What was a common fault?

MJ were the first to do a wide scale study of human responses to sex/sensual things. Very white washed, thus not representative of the population especially today

8

Explain the difference between the qualitative method and quantitative method. What is the benefit to each type of research method?

Qualitative: Open ended, discussion questions

Quantitive: Organizable or measurable method questions

qualitative is great when trying to understand what the right questions to as are. quantitative is great for understanding or analyzing something critically and accurately

9

What are the 3 types of research done for sexual behaviour?

1. Descriptive design (direct observation, interview, case study, content analysis)
2. Correlational design (survey, archival data mining)
3. Experimental

10

What are descriptive designs useful for?

- generating research ideas
- summarizing patterns of behaviour

11

What is direct observation and what are it’s flaws?

Simply a monitoring of sexual or relational behaviour. Recall bias and responder bias

12

What are interviews used for, and what are some of their weaknesses as a research method?

Detailed account of an individuals history and beliefs. Recall bias and responder bias

13

What is the purpose of a case study? What are some of it’s weaknesses as a research method?

Examines an event or a group of individuals over a long period of time. Interpretation bias, lack of control or experimental design and poor generalizability

14

Explain content analysis as a research method. What are some of its cons?

- Analyzing the meaning in a body of text or a set of observations
- Con: Non-quantifiable results

15

What is a correlational design? What is a con of this research method?

- Analyzing the strength of a correlation between two variables
- Con: there could be confounding variables that confuse interpretation, and correlation does not always equal causation

16

What is the con of using a survey as a research method?

- memory bias/ recall bias
- responder bias

17

What is archival data mining and what are some of the cons?

- When one sorts through records or pre-existing data
- Con: incomplete records can lead to wrong conclusion, and information may be out of date

18

What is quantitative sensory testing? Why is it important?

It analysis the bodies physiological response to stimulus. Important to us because alot of genital sensory testing is done to help understand conditions like vaginismus

19

What does fMRI stand for? What is it used for?

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

fMRI is used to measure brain activity relating to sexual function or dysfunction

20

What are 2 major problems with fMRI?

- fMRI studies often don’t have a control group
- Depends heavily on a researchers ability to interpret data

21

What are the 3 benefits to studying animal sexuality?

1. Help us to understand normal vs abnormal
2. Helps us clarify cause and effect relationships
3. Helps us to test treatment models

22

What is the main problem with using animal models?

Anthromorphizing: giving animals human reasons for their actions

23

Order the following in terms of their location on a person laying on their back: mons pubis, urethral opening, clitoral hood, clitoris, anus, vaginal opening

Mons pubis, clitoral hood, clitoris, urethral opening, vaginal opening, anus

24

What does the perineum include?

Everything from mons pubis to anus

25

What does the vestibule include?

Urethral opening and vaginal opening

26

What is the purpose of the mons pubis?

1. Acts as a cushion during sexual intercourse
2. Many nerve endings for arousal

27

What is the function of pubic hair on the mons pubis?

1. Pheromonal signalling
2. Protection against friction during sexual intercourse

28

Why is it more common for women to reach orgasm during sex from clitoral stimulation rather than vaginal?

Women’s clitoris has many many more nerve endings than a woman’s vagina

29

Is the clitoris homologous or analogous to the penis?

Homologous since they’re similar in structure and come from the same embryonic tissue

NOT analogous because they have different functions (used for urination as well)

30

What was a controversial opinion Freud had on women’s sexual pleasure?

That women had “immature” and “mature” orgasms: the immature orgasms being from clitoral stimulation and the mature being from vaginal stimulus