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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science Deck (120)
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30

What is the Appendicular Skeleton, and how many bones does it contain?

-Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities as well as shoulders and pelvic girdles.
-Approximately 126 bones

31

What is special about the Pelvic Girdle in regard to Axial or Appendicular Skeletons?

the pelvic girdle is often considered a component of either axial or appendicular system and is actually a link between the two systems.

32

What are the two vital functions of bones?

1. Leverage: act and perform as levers when acted on by muscles.
2. Provide Support: (relative to movement), translates into posture, which is necessary for the efficient distribution of forces acting on the body.

34

Define Remodeling.

The process of resorption and formation of bone.

35

Define Osteoclasts.

A type of bone cell that removes bone tissue during resorption (broke down during resorption, removed by osteoclasts).

35

What are the 5 major types of bones?

1. Long Bones
2. Short Bones
3. Flat Bones
4. Irregular Bones
5. Sesamoid Bones

36

Define Osteoblasts.

A type of cell that is responsible for bone formation (lays down new bone tissue to replace the old during remodeling - resorption and formation of bone).

38

Define Long Bones.

- Long, cylindrical body (shaft), with irregular or widened bony ends with slight curvature that is necessary for efficient force distribution.
- Composed predominately of compact bone tissue to ensure strength and stiffness.
- Contains considerable amounts of spongy bone tissue for shock absorption.
- Upper Body Long Bones: clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals, and phalanges.
- Lower Body Long Bones: femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, and phalanges.

39

What is Epiphysis?

-The end of long bones, which is mainly composed of cancellous bone, and houses much of the red marrow involved in red blood cell production.
-They are also one of the primary sites for bone growth.
-Note: during growth periods, area can be vulnerable to injury.

40

What is Diaphysis?

- The shaft portion of the long bone, predominately compact bone (although inside the shaft is hollow).
-Primary Role: Support

41

What is Epiphyseal Plate?

-The region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis.
-It is a layer of subdividing cartilaginous cells in which growth in length of the diaphysis occurs.
-Note: damage before cession of growth could result in shorter bone

42

What is a Periosteum?

-A dense, tough membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone, except that of the articulating surfaces in joints, which are covered by a synovial membrane.
-It contains nerves, blood vessels, and bone-producing cells
-Inner surface provides the materials for nutrition repair and facilitates growth in the diameter of the bone.
-Fundamental Role in movement by providing the point of attachment for tendons.

43

Define Medullar Cavity.

-The space that runs down through the center of the diaphysis and contains fatty yellow marrow that is predominately composed of dispose tissue and serves as a useful energy reserve.

44

What is Articulate (Hyaline) Cartilage?

-Cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones.
-Hard, white, shiny tissue that, along with synovial fluid, helps reduce friction in freely moveable (synovial joints).
-Fundamental for smooth joint action.

45

What are Short Bones? Give examples.

-Similar in length and width and appear somewhat cubical in shape.
-Consist predominately of spongy bone tissue to maximize shock absorption.
-Examples: carpals of hands and tarsals of feet

46

What are Flat Bones? Give examples.

-Thin bones comprising two layers of compact bone tissues surrounding a layer of spongy bone tissue.
-Involved in protection of internal structures.
-Provide broad attachments for muscles.
-Examples: sternum, scapulae, ribs, ilium, and cranial bones.

47

What are Irregular Bones? Give examples.

-Unique shape and function
-Does not fit characteristics of other bone categories.
-Examples: vertebrae, pelvic bones, and certain facial bones.

48

What are Sesamoid Bones? Give examples.

-Small bones embedded in a joint capsule or found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint.
-Develop within particular tendons at a site of considerable friction or tension.
-Serve to improve leverage and protect the joint from damage.
-Examples?!

49

What are Depressions?

-Flattened or indented portions of bone, which can be muscle attachment sites.
-Common depression: "Fossa"
*Example: the supraspinous or infraspinous fossa located on the scapulae (shoulder blades).
-Another form of depression: "Sulcus"
*Example: intertubercular sulcus located between the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus (upper arm bone).

49

What are "Processes" (in reference to bones)? What are the 5 common processes of bones?

-Projections protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach.
-More common processes:
-Process
-Condyle
-Epicondyle
-Tubercle
-Trochanter

50

What are "Processes" (in reference to bones)? What are the 6 common processes of bones?

-Projections protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach.
-More common processes:
1. Spinous
2. Coracoid
3. Condyle
4. Epicondyle
5. Tubercle
6. Trochanter

51

What are the 5 categories in which the vertebral column is divided, where are the located, and what are their corresponding functions/purposes?

1. Cervical Vertebrae (C1-C7): first 7 starting at the top of the spinal column that form a flexible framework and provide support and motion for the head.
2. Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12): next 12 vertebrae located in the upper and middle back behind the ribs. Move with the ribs to form rear anchor to the rib cage. Larger than cervical vertebrae and increase in size from top to bottom.
3. Lumbar Vertebrae (L1-L5): 5 vertebrae of the low back below the thoracic spine. Support most of the body's weight and are attached to many of the back muscles. Often a location of pain b/c these vertebrae carry the most amount of weight and are subject to the largest forces and stresses along the spine.
4. Sacrum: triangular bone located below the lumbar spine. Consists of 4 or 5 sacral vertebrae in a child, which become fused into a single bone during adulthood.
5. Coccyx: located below the sacrum, more commonly known as the tailbone. Consists of 3 to 5 bones that are fused together in an adult. Many muscles connect to the coccyx.

52

What does Neutral Spine mean and what are the three types of curvatures?

-Optimal arrangement of curves in which the vertebrae and associated structures are under the least amount of load.
1. Posterior Cervical Curvature: a posterior concavity of the cervical spine.
2. Anterior Thoracic Curvature: a posterior convexity of the thoracic spine.
3. Posterior Lumbar Curvature: a posterior concavity of the lumbar spine.

53

How are joints formed?

By one bone that articulates with another bone.

54

What is Arthrokinematics and what are the three major motion types?

Joint motion
1. Roll
2. Slide
3. Spin

55

What is a joint rolling movement? Give an example.

One joint rolls across the surface of another like a bike tire rolls on the street.
Body Example: femoral condyles moving (rolling) over the tibial condyles in a squat.

56

What is a joint sliding movement? Give an example.

One joint's surface slides across another like bike tires skidding on the street.
Body Example: the tibial condyles moving (sliding) across the femoral condyles during a knee extension.

57

What is a joint spinning movement? Give an example.

One joint's surface rotates on another like twisting a lid of a jar.
Body Example: the head of the radius (a bone of the forearm) rotating on the end of the humerus during pronation and supination of the forearm.

58

Synovial Joints

Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body.
-most common joints (80% of all joints in the body) associated with human movement

59

What is the purpose of the synovial joint design? What are the 3 parts of the synovial joint?

To increase mobility.
1. Synovial Capsule: collagenous structure surrounding entire joint
2. Synovial Membrane: inner layer of the capsule
3. Hyaline Cartilage: pads the ends of the articulating bones