Chapter 2 Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Review Deck (56):
1

a fatty acid that contains two or more double covalent bonds

polyunsaturated

2

when atoms complete their outer electron shell by sharing electrons

covalent bonds

3

weak bond between polar molecules such as water

hydrogen

4

smallest stable units of matter

atoms

5

a side chain on an amino acid

R group

6

a pH of 1 is found here in the body

stomach

7

this molecule is the backbone of a triglyceride molecule

glycerol

8

during ionization, water molecules disrupt the ionic bonds of a salt to produce a mixture of ions which carry a current called

electrolytes

9

this number is the number of protons and neutrons

mass number

10

the chemical behavior of an atom is determined by

electrons

11

a polysaccharide that is formed in liver and muscle cells to store glucose

glycogen

12

if a substance has a pH that is greater than 7

alkaline

13

isotopes of an element differ in the number of

neutrons

14

carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are classified as

organic

15

which has the greater concentration of hydrogen ions, a substance with a pH of 5 or a substance with a pH of 4?

pH of 4

16

substrate molecules bind to enzymes at

active sites

17

bonds formed when on cations and anions attract one another

ionic

18

radioisotopes have unstable

nuclei

19

these molecules cushion organs, help insulate the body, provide 2x the energy as carbohydrates, and are needed for cell membrane production

lipids

20

neutral pH

7

21

the most abundant high-energy compound in cells

ATP

22

an amino acid is to protein as _____ is to a nucleic acid

nucleotide

23

responsible for much of the mass of the human body, had high heat capacity, dissolved many substances and is composed of polar hydrogen bonded molecules

water

24

adenine and guanine are

purines

25

the atomic number of an atom is determined by

number of protons it has

26

oxygen is required in biological systems for

metabolism

27

level of protein folding in which separate polypeptide subunits interact

quaternary

28

according to the rules of complementary bases pairing in nucleic acids, cytosine would pair with the base ______

guanine

29

the most important metabolic fuel molecule in the body

glucose

30

the body's most readily available source of energy

carbohydrates

31

the innermost electron shell in an atom holds up ___ electrons

two

32

the alpha-helix and pleated sheet are examples of _____ protein structure

secondary

33

chemical reactions that yield energy, such as heat, are said to be _______

exergonic

34

-NH2

amine

35

in this reaction, molecules lose water during synthesis

dehydration

36

ions with a + charge are called

cation

37

molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas are called

isomers

38

AB -> A + B is to decomposition as A + B -> AB is to ________

synthesis

39

you would expect a peptide bond to link _______

amino acids

40

proteins that function as biological catalysts

enzymes

41

if a pair of electrons is unequally shared between to atoms, a _______ bond occurs

polar covalent bond

42

three subatomic particles that are constituents of atoms

protons, neutrons, electrons

43

the protons of an atom are only found

in the nucleus

44

the unequal sharing of electrons in a molecule of water is an example of

a polar covalent bond

45

the presence of an appropriate enzyme affects only the

rate of a reaction

46

organic catalysts made by a living cell to promote a specific reaction

enzymes

47

the four major classes of organic compounds

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

48

absolute that dissociates to release hydrogen ions and causes a decrease in pH

acid

49

a carbohydrate molecule is made up of

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

50

the lipids that function as chemical messengers coordinating local cellular activities

eicosanoids

51

the lipids absorbed from food or synthesized in cells

fatty acids

52

special proteins that speed up metabolic reactions

enzymes

53

the three basic components of a single nucleotide of a nucleic acid

sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base

54

the most important high-energy compound found in human cells

ATP

55

three components required to create the high-energy compound ATP

adenosine, phosphate groups, appropriate enzymes

56

biochemical building blocks form functional units called

cells