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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Review Deck (67):
1

these are duplicates during the S phase

chromosomes

2

a special type of cell division performed by reproductive cells to reduce chromosome number

meiosis

3

this organelle synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates

SER

4

these cell projections increase surface area for increased membrane transport

microvilli

5

another name for the cell membrane

plasmalemma

6

this organelle digests foreign material

lysosomes

7

the genetically programmed death of cells

apoptosis

8

this term is used to describe the shrinking of red blood cells in a hypertonic solution

crenation

9

in this solution, cells absorb water and swell (ex: after you stay in the pool too long)

hypotonic

10

smallest living unit within the human body

cell

11

process of protein formation directed by mRNA

translation

12

part of the cytoskeleton used to move chromosomes during cell division

microtubules

13

makes up microtubules

tubulin

14

mRNA is needed to synthesize these in the cytoplasm

proteins

15

makes most of the ATO required to power cellular operations

mitochondria

16

these are the functional units of DNA that contain instructions for making one or more proteins

genes

17

proteins in the cytosine that accelerate metabolic reactions

enzymes

18

an alternative term for a tumor

neoplasm

19

in order to maintain cellular homeostasis, an exchange pump ejects ______ ions from the cell and imports ______ ions

sodium; potassium

20

the intake of small membrane vesicles from the extracellular fluid

endocytosis

21

process by which molecules move along concentration gradients with the help of membrane-bound carrier proteins

facilitated diffusion

22

this bilayer composes the plasma membrane

phospholipids

23

a network of intracellular membranes with attached ribosomes

RER

24

a process that requires cellular energy to move substances against the concentration gradient

active transport

25

the specialization process in which cells become limited in the range of proteins that can be made as genes are functionally eliminated

differentiation

26

these organelles form mitotic spindles to move chromosomes during mitosis

centrioles

27

proteins found here anchor the cell, serve as receptors, allow cells to be recognized, and act as enzymes

plasma membrane

28

this term is used to describe the bursting of red blood cells in a hypotonic solution

hemolysis

29

sodium and potassium are the two most important ____ in body fluids

cations

30

a type of division used to produce somatic cells

mitosis

31

three nucleotides in mRNA that code for a specific amino acid

codon

32

DNA is located here

nucleus

33

this organelle renews the cell membrane and modified and packages proteins for secretion

golgi

34

this cell component supports and moves organelles, controls cell shape, and provides cell strength

cytoskeleton

35

movement of a molecule from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

diffusion

36

the anticodon for UCA

AGU

37

makes up microfilaments

actin

38

the type of nucleic acid that can leave the nucleus with vital information about protein structure

mRNA

39

organelles that absorb and neutralize drugs and toxins

peroxisomes

40

components of ribosomes are formed here

nucleoli

41

during mitosis, chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes during this phase

anaphase

42

the stage in the cells life cycle in which cell performs its normal functions and prepares for division

interphase

43

this term is used to describe how cancer cells may spread

metastasis

44

the major components of the cell membrane

phospholipids
proteins
glycolipids
cholesterol

45

most of the communication between the interior and exterior of the cell occurs by

integral protein channels

46

because of its chemical-structural composition, the cell membrane is called a

phospholipid bilayer

47

approximately 95 percent of the energy needed to keep a cell alive is generated by the activity of the

mitochondria

48

nucleoli are nuclear organelles that

synthesize the components of ribosomes

49

the three major functions of endoplasmic reticulum are

synthesis
storage
transport

50

the functions of the golgi apparatus include

synthesis
storage
alteration
packaging

51

the major factor that allows the nucleus to control cellular operations is through its

regulation of protein synthesis

52

ribosomal protein and RNA are produced primarily in the

nucleolus

53

along the length of the DNA strand, information is stored in the sequence of

nitrogen bases

54

a sequence of three nitrogen bases can specify the identity of

a single amino acid

55

the process in which RNA polymerase uses the genetic information to assemble a strand of mRNA

transcription

56

if the DNA triples is TAG, the corresponding codon on the mRNA strand will be

AUC

57

the transport process that requires the presence of specialized integral membrane protein

carrier-mediated transport

58

ions and other small water-soluble materials cross the cell membrane only by passing through

a channel protein

59

all transport through the cell membrane can be classified as either

active or passive

60

the mechanism by which glucose can enter the cytoplasm without expending ATP is via

a carrier protein

61

is osmosis, water flows across a membrane toward the solution that has the

higher concentration of solutes

62

the transmembrane potential results from the

unequal distribution of ions

63

the process of mitosis begins when cell enters the

M phase

64

the four stages of mitosis in correct sequence are

prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase

65

at the chromosome level, the number of cell divisions performed by a cell and its descendants is regulated by structures called

telomeres

66

the spreading process of a primary tumor is called ________ and the dispersion of malignant cells to establish a secondary tumor is called ________

invasion, metastasis

67

the process of differentiation is cell specialization as a result of

gene activation or repression