Chapter 5 Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Review Deck (73):
1

the layers of the epidermis beginning with the deepest layer and proceeding outwardly

germinativum
spinosum
granulosum
corneum

2

layers of epidermis where mitotic divisions occur

germinativum and spinosum

3

the epidermis consists of a

stratified squamous epithelium

4

epidermal cells in the strata spinosum and germinativum function as a chemical factory in that they can convert

steroid precursors to vitamin D when exposed to sunlight

5

differences in skin color between individuals reflect distinct

levels of melanin synthesis

6

the basic factors interacting to produce skin color are

circulatory supple and pigment concentration and composition

7

excessive exposure of the skin to UV radiation may cause redness, edema, blisters, and pain. the presence of blisters classifies the burn as

second degree

8

when exposed to ultraviolet radiation, epidermal cells in the stratum germinativum convert a cholesterol related steroid into

vitamin D3

9

the hormone essential for the normal absorption of calcium and phosphorus by the small intestine is

calcitrol

10

the two major components of the dermis

papillary and reticular

11

what the dermis contains to communicate with other organ systems

nerve fibers

12

special smooth muscles in the dermis that produce goosebumps

arrector pili

13

the primary tissues compromising the subcutaneous layer

areolar and adipose

14

the reason the subcutaneous layer is useful for subcutaneous injection by hypodermic needle is that it has a

limited number of capillaries and no vital organs

15

an important function of the subcutaneous layer is to

stabilize the position of the skin in relation to underlying tissues

16

hair production occurs in the

reticular layers of the dermis

17

the natural factor responsible for varying shades of hair color

type of pigment present

18

accessory structures of the skin include

hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands

19

when the body temperature becomes high, thermoregulatory homeostasis is maintained by

an increase in sweat gland activity and blood flow to the skin

20

nail production occurs at an epithelial fold not visible from the surface called

nail root

21

hair turns gray or white due to

decreased melanocyte activity

22

the primary interaction between the integumentary system and the digestive system

digestive synthesizes vitamin D3

23

the first line of defense against an often hostile environment

epidermis

24

layer where cells are flattened, densely packed, and filled with eleidin

stratum lucidum

25

keratin would be found primarily in the

stratum coreum

26

mobile macrophages that are a part of the immune system and found scattered among deeper cells of the epidermis

Langerhans cells

27

peptide secreted by the pituitary gland which darkens the skin

MSH

28

pigment that absorbs ultraviolet radiation before it can damage mitochondrial DNA

melanin

29

bone development is abnormal and bone maintenance is inadequate if there is a dietary deficiency or a lack of skin production of

cholecalciferol

30

stimulating synthetic activity and secretion by epithelial cells is among roles of

EGF

31

type of tissue that compromises most of the dermis

connective

32

subcutaneous layer is extensively interwoven with the connective tissue fibers of the

reticular layer

33

the fine peach fuzz hairs found over much of the body surface

arrector pili

34

hair develops from a group of epidermal cells at the base of a tube-like depression called

follicle

35

variations in hair color reflect differences in structure and variations in the pigment produced by

melanocytes

36

secretion that lubricates and inhibits the growth of bacteria on the skin

sebum

37

glands in skin that become active when body temperature rises above the normal

eccrine glands

38

sweat glands that communicate with hair follicles

apocrine

39

the stratum corneum that covers the exposed nail closest to the root

eponychium

40

during a sustained reduction in circulatory supply the skin takes on a bluish coloration called

cyanosis

41

essential part of the healing process during which the edges of a wound are pulled closer together

contraction

42

in older adults dry and scaly skin is a result of a decrease in

grandular activity

43

system that stimulates contraction of arrector pili muscles to elevate hairs of the integument

nervous system

44

two layers of the cutaneous membrane

outer epidermis
inner epidermis

45

difference between thick and thin skin

stratum lucidum in thick skin

46

thick skin has _____ layers and thin has ______ and is missing _______

5
4; stratum lucidum

47

cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system

Langerhans cells

48

function of pigment melanin

protects skin from UV

49

function of sebaceous glands

produce sebum

50

ABCDE of skin cancer

assymetry
border
color
diameter
evolving

51

function of sebum

lubricate the epidermis

52

function of ceruminous glands

earwax

53

rockets is caused by

insufficient amount of D3

54

abrasion

when bleeding occurs

55

laceration

cut with jagged edges

56

contusion

damage in blood vessels resulting in bruising

57

dermatitis

inflammation of skin

58

ulcer

sure that won't heal due to lack of O2

59

nail body covers the

nail bed

60

keratinized skin called the cuticle is also called

eponychium

61

this makes goosebumps

arrector pili

62

first degree burn

redness of skin

63

second degree burn

blisters, dermis, damage, scarring

64

third degree burn

into hypodermics and muscle bone, skin graph

65

partial-thickness burn

1 or 2 degree burn

66

full thickness burn means

3 degree burn, requires skin graph

67

protein that permits stretching and recoiling of skin

elastin

68

stretch marks occur with

weight gain or pregnancy

69

result of large mass of collages fibers with few blood vessels

scar tissue

70

wrinkles are caused by

loss of elastic fibers

71

if the papilla of a hair follicle is destroyed

hair will never grow back

72

caused by severe reduction in blood flow or oxygenation, bluish skin tint

cyanosis

73

buildup of bile produced by liver, yellow color

jaundice