Chapter 2 Understanding the Research Process and Ethical Issues in Nursing Research Flashcards Preview

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A condition in which the identity of subjects remains unknown, *even to the researcher*, to protect subjects participating in a study and to promote objective results.


Applied research

1. A type of study designed to gather knowledge that has *direct clinical application*.
2. Most nursing research falls into this category.


Basic research

1. A type of study designed to *develop the knowledge base* and extend theory without direct focus on clinical application.
2. Closely resembles the work done in laboratories and is associated with scientists.



Protecting data that are gathered or learned from patients by not disclosing information without their permission.


Correlational research

A type of *nonexperimental* study designed to examine the relationship between and among variables.


Cross-sectional research

1. A study that collects data at a *particular point in time* and does not require follow-up.
2. There is *no attempt* to document changes over time.


Descriptive research

1. A type of *nonexperimental* study designed to provide a knowledge base *when little is known* about a phenomenon; used to describe variables rather than to test a predicted relationship.
2. A particular situation or event that already exists is described systematically. No attempt is made to examine relationships, make predictions, explain how a situation might be changed, etc.
3. Uses questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or observations to collect data; sample subjects represent the population at large.


Experimental research

A study in which the researcher manipulates and controls one or more variables and observes the effect on one or more other variables.


Human rights

The protection of subjects participating in a research study; includes (1) the right to freedom from injury, (2) the right to privacy and dignity, and (3) the right to anonymity and confidentiality.


Longitudinal research

1. A study that follows a cohort of subjects and collects data *over time*.
2. Disadvantages: Loss of subjects at different points during the study; threat from testing effects because subjects are tested repeatedly.


Nonexperimental research

1. A descriptive study that does not exhibit a great amount of control over variables.
2. Sometimes described as descriptive, correlational, or exploratory research.


Prospective research

1. A study that examines *data collected in the present*.
2. More reliable than retrospective studies because of the potential for *greater control of data collection*.


Retrospective research

1. A study that examines *data collected in the past*.
2. Typified by a review of medical records.


Risk-benefit ratio

1. The relationship between potential harm to subjects and potential positive outcomes gained by participating in a research study.
2. An evaluation used by subjects to make voluntary *informed consent*.
3. *The benefits should exceed the risks* - a primary objective standard by which to judge the ethics of certain research procedures.


Vulnerable research participant

Those persons who are relatively or absolutely incapable of protecting their own interests and *unable to provide meaningful informed consent*.


Steps of the research process

1. Selecting and defining the problem.
2. Selecting a research design.
3. Collecting data.
4. Analyzing data.
5. Using the research findings.
The process is *circular* - researchers may need to go back and forth to rethink and reconceptualize the problem several times.


Selecting and defining the problem involves _

1. Identifying the problem (something that provides an opportunity to advance nursing knowledge) and writing the purpose statement.
2. Reviewing related literature.
3. Identifying pertinent variables.
4. Formulating research questions and hypotheses.


Selecting a research design involves _

1. Identifying the sample, setting, and testing to be used (based on how the research problem is conceptualized).
2. Defining all measurements.


Collecting data involves _

1. Using the data collection methods developed in steps 1 and 2.
2. Recording the data and organizing it into an appropriate form for analysis.


Analyzing data involves _

1. Analyzing data (which may involve applying statistical procedures).
2. Interpreting findings and making valid conclusions about the data - including whether the hypotheses were supported or not supported.


Using the research findings involves _

Disseminating the findings of the research (through journal articles, abstracts, oral presentations, and poster presentations).


Classification of research is based on _

1. The purpose of a study.
2. The amount of control used.


Applied research is usually performed _

In actual practice conditions, on subjects who represent the group to which the results will be applied.


A high number of research studies in nursing are classified as _

Descriptive correlational designs.


The basic documents that have been used to develop ethical guidelines in nursing research are based on _

1. The Nuremberg Code (1947) - protection of human subjects from risk or harm, the right to withdraw from experimentation, and adequate qualifications of those conducting research.
2. The Declaration of Helsinki (1964) - informing subjects of direct benefits/potential harms associated with the study before consenting to participate in the research, obtaining informed consent *in writing*.


Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1972)

The U.S. Public Health Service wanted to compare black men who had been diagnosed with syphilis with those who did not have syphilis. Due to a difficulty recruiting subjects, the experimenters told men that they needed to receive treatment for "bad blood". They were not told they were participating in a research study. The experimenters further treated syphilis patients with a drug that they knew would not help the disease, resulting in progression of the disease and death.


Willowbrook Study (1950-1970)

The subjects were mentally handicapped children who were intentionally given the hepatitis B virus for the purposes of studying the period of infectivity. Parents were required to consent for their children to participate in the study in order to admit their child to the school. They were not told about the serious consequences of infection with the hepatitis B virus, which has no cure.


Two factors involved in attempting to ensure the right to freedom from injury

1. Ability of the benefit to justify participants' exposure to involved risks.
2. The participants' vulnerability.


The use of subjects with limited civil freedom can usually only be justified when _

There is a predicted benefit to them or others in similar circumstances.


Categories of vulnerable research subjects

Children; the cognitively impaired; the elderly (some); human fetuses; the mentally incapacitated; neonates; prisoners; sedated or unconscious (comatose) patients; students and employees; terminally ill patients.