Chapter 13 Interpreting and Reporting Research Findings Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Interpreting and Reporting Research Findings Deck (23)
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1

Abstract

1. A brief summary of a research study; usually includes the purpose, methods, and findings of a study.
2. Length: 100-300 words.

2

Clinical significance

1. Findings that have meaning for patient care in the absence *or* presence of statistical significance.
2. A study can be clinically significant without being statistically significant.

3

Generalizability

1. Extent to which research findings can be generalized beyond the given research situation to other settings and subjects; also called *external validity*.
2. Requires that that a sample be both *representative* of the larger population and *large enough* to permit generalization of the findings.

4

Limitations

1. Aspects of a study that are potentially *confounding* to the main study variables.
2. Can include things such as sample deficiencies, design problems, weakness in data collection procedures, and use of unreliable measures.
3. Generally reported in the *discussion* section of an article so that the interpretation of results is made with knowledge of the potential impact of the limiting factors.

5

Query letter

Letter written to an editor to determine the level of interest in publishing a research report.

6

Refereed journal

1. A journal that uses expert peers in specified fields to review and determine whether a particular manuscript will be published.
2. Usually involves two to four reviewers for one manuscript; the name of the author is usually not known to the reviewers.

7

Research report

A document that summarizes the key aspects of a research study; usually includes the purpose, methods, and findings of a study.

8

Statistical significance

1. The extent to which the results of an analysis are *unlikely to be the effect of chance*.
2. 𝑝 is less than 0.05 is considered the standard measure of statistical significance ("These findings are likely to be the result of chance only 5 times out of 100").

9

Components of a research report, in order

1. Title (usually 15 words or less).
2. Abstract (brief summary).
3. Introduction (purpose of study; incidence/prevalence of problem; variables; framework, if applicable).
4. Review of literature.
5. Methods (sample; setting; data collection).
6. Results (objective presentation of data).
7. Discussion (more detailed analysis of data).
8. Conclusions (what do the results support?).
9. References.
10. Appendices.

10

Interpretation of research findings

1. Findings are discussed based on the *research question(s) and hypotheses* cited in the study.
2. Findings are discussed in relation to the broader significance, or lack thereof, for nursing practice.
3. Considerations: The meaning of the results, the significance of the findings, generalizing the findings, drawing conclusions, and suggesting implications for practice and/or further study.

11

Location of the interpretation of findings in a research report

Usually found toward the end, under the heading of "results," "conclusions," or "discussion."

12

Conclusions

Statements of what the results of the study indicate, demonstrate, or support - *not "prove"* - regarding a phenomenon.

13

Typical length of a research report

Usually 10-20 pages; dissertations are 50-200+ pages, due to their much higher level of detail.

14

An up-to-date _ is extremely important to validate the need for a study.

Literature review.

15

Results section

Section of a research report in which data are presented objectively, *with little discussion*. Tables and graphs, if used, should *not* duplicate what is in the text.

16

Researchers use the _ section to explain what the results mean in relation to the purpose of the study.

Discussion.

17

Limitations of a study are usually addressed in the _ section.

Discussion.

18

Advantages and disadvantages of publishing a research report

1. Advantage: Ability reach a wide audience (depending on the readership of the journal).
2. Disadvantage: The delay in receiving feedback and potential delay in the actual publication of the report (often 6 months to 1 year after submission).

19

Advantages and disadvantages of oral presentations

1. Advantage: Findings can be disseminated much more quickly; feedback can be obtained either during or after the presentation.
2. Disadvantage: A limited number of people will get the information.

20

Advantages and disadvantages of poster presentations

1. Advantage: The researcher can engage in an active dialogue with other researchers.
2. Disadvantage: Only a limited number of people will read the poster and only a limited amount of information can be presented.

21

Generalizability is based on _

An examination of the risk to validity.

22

The *methods* section should *always* contain _

Information regarding IRB approval/protection of human subjects.

23

The methods section usually ends with _

The data analysis plan, including specific data analysis techniques.