Flashcards in Chapter 6 Formulating Hypotheses and Research Questions Deck (41)

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1

## Complex hypothesis

### A statement explaining and/or predicting relationships between *two or more* independent and dependent variables.

2

## Deductive reasoning

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1. A process that begins with a general picture and moves to a specific direction or prediction.

2. Deductive hypotheses are derived from *theory* and contribute to the science of nursing by providing evidence that supports, expands, or contradicts a given theory.

3

## Dependent variable

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1. A variable that is *observed for changes* or to assess the possible effect of a treatment or manipulation; may be the effect or outcome of an experimental procedure; also referred to as a criterion variable or outcome variable. Usually symbolized by the letter Y.

2. The variable which is under investigation and is the *focus of the study*.

3. What the researcher intends to understand, explain, predict, or measure about subjects after the introduction of the independent variable.

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## Directional hypothesis

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1. A hypothesis that makes a *specific prediction about the direction of the relationship* between two variables.

2. Usually derived from conceptual models or findings from previous research.

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## Extraneous variable

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1. A variable that is not controlled for in a study, which threatens the *internal validity* of the study. Also known as confounding variables.

2. These variables exist in all studies and are primarily of concern in quantitative research.

3. Classified as controlled or uncontrolled and as recognized or unrecognized. *Attempts should be made to identify and control extraneous variables.*

6

## Hypothesis

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1. A statement about the relationship between the variables that are being investigated. A well stated hypothesis must be *testable*.

2. Purposes: Guide scientific inquiry for the advancement of knowledge; provide direction for the research design and the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; provide a framework for reporting the conclusions of a study.

3. Researchers do *not* set out to prove hypotheses but rather to collect data that either support or refute them. Hypotheses are *never* proved right or wrong.

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## Hypothesis-generating study

### A study that generates hypotheses by pulling together pieces of data from several *descriptive/exploratory studies*.

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## Independent variable

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1. A variable that is *manipulated and controlled* by the researcher; also called a predictor variable. Usually symbolized by the letter X.

2. May be classified as an experimental, treatment, intervention, or predictor variable.

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## Inductive reasoning

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1. A process that begins with details or specific observations and moves to a more general picture.

2. Inductive hypotheses are derived from *observed patterns* and contribute to the development of a model or framework that can possibly be tested through more formal research.

10

## Nondirectional hypothesis

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1. A hypothesis that *does not stipulate in advance the direction* and nature of the relationship between two variables.

2. Used when *past research provides conflicting results* or when the direction of the relationship is unknown.

11

## Null hypothesis (H₀)

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1. A hypothesis stating that *no relationship* or difference exists between two variables. Also called statistical hypothesis.

2. Suits the statistical techniques that determine whether an observed relationship is probably a chance relationship or probably a true relationship.

12

## Research hypothesis (H₁ or Hₐ)

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1. A hypothesis *stating a relationship* or difference between two variables. Also called an alternative, declarative, or scientific hypothesis.

2. Indicates what the researcher *expects to find* as a result of conducting a study.

13

## Research question

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1. A concise, *interrogative statement* written in the present tense that includes one or more variables (or concepts). All research variables and the population to be studied should be included.

2. Three purposes (does not have to do all three): Describes variable(s), examines relationships among variables, and determines differences between two or more groups regarding the selected variable(s).

3. Used when *prior knowledge of the phenomenon is limited* and the research seeks to identify or describe the phenomenon.

4. Should flow naturally from the purpose statement and narrow the focus of the study.

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## Simple hypothesis

### A statement explaining and/or predicting a relationship between *one independent and one dependent* variable.

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## Variable

### A *measurable characteristic* that varies among the subjects being studied.

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## Hypotheses and research questions are formulated after _ has been completed.

### The review of literature.

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## Placement of hypotheses in a research report logically follows _

### The literature review and theoretical framework.

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## _ research studies usually do *not* have hypotheses.

### Descriptive or exploratory. (Instead, they have *research questions.*)

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## Required elements of a hypothesis

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1. The variables being studied.

2. The population being studied (the subjects).

3. The predicted outcomes (how X affects Y).

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## All nouns in hypotheses or research question should be defined _

### First conceptually and then operationally.

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## Variables identified in hypotheses must be _

### Operationally defined - specify how the variables will be measured in terms of the instruments, scales, or both, that will be used.

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## Directional hypotheses are _ than nondirectional hypotheses.

### Clearer and more logical.

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## Hypotheses are evaluated by _

### Statistical analyses.

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## Correlational statistics

### Conducted to determine the existence, type, and strength of the relationship between the variables being studied.

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## Inferential statistics

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1. Used to evaluate hypotheses that examine differences between and among categories or levels of variables.

2. Examples: T-test, analysis of variance.

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## When a study is completed and a significant relationship exists between two variables or there is a difference between groups, the null hypothesis is _

### Rejected.

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## Research questions, rather than hypotheses, are often used in _

### Exploratory or descriptive studies.

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## In contrast to the problem statement, research questions are _

### More precise and specific.

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## _ studies are guided by the use of research questions rather than hypotheses.

### Qualitative research.

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