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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Data Collection Methods Deck (34)
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Closed-ended questionnaire

1. Type of format in which subjects are asked to select an answer from several choices.
2. Often used in large surveys when questionnaires are mailed to subjects; *easily coded*.
3. Useful when subjects are *not very verbal or articulate*.



1. A device, piece of equipment, or paper-and-pencil test that measures a concept or variable of interest.
2. Consists of a series of items that may be analyzed either as a total score or independently as separate subscales.
3. Scoring guidelines, procedures, and normative data should be included in the instrument and are usually *not* found in journal articles.


Interview schedule

1. List of topics or an open-ended questionnaire administered to subjects *by a skilled interviewer*. Sometimes referred to as an interview guide.
2. The presence of the interviewer allows for probing of subjects' responses and decreases the possibility of vague answers.


Likert scale

1. Sometimes referred to as a *summative scale*. Respondents are asked to respond to a series of statements that reflect agreement or disagreement. Most Likert scales consist of five scale points, designated by the words "strongly agree," "agree," "undecided," "disagree," and "strongly disagree."
2. *Commonly addresses agreement, evaluation, frequency, or importance.*
3. Each choice along the scale is assigned a point value, based on the extent to which the item represents a favorable or unfavorable characteristic. The actual values are unimportant as long as the items are consistently scored and follow scoring guidelines.


Open-ended questionnaire

1. Type of format in which subjects are asked to provide specific answers to questions.
2. Less common than closed-ended questionnaires, especially when quantitative methods for data analysis are planned; the researcher has less control over subjects' answers.
3. Responses cannot be analyzed using a computer unless the responses are *coded*.


Q methodology

1. Sorting technique used to characterize opinions, attitudes, or judgments of individuals through comparative rank ordering.
2. An individual is given a set of 40-100 cards containing a series of written items, each on a separate card, and the individual is asked to sort the cards into 5-10 piles according to some scaled criterion. The researcher specifies how many cards go into each pile.
3. Intended to yield a normal distribution of responses, with fewer statements in the extreme category.



1. A *structured* survey that is self-administered *or* interviewer administered.
2. Advantages: Can be sent through the mail to reach a large population in a relatively brief time; easily coded and tabulated.
3. Disadvantages: Mailed questionnaires have a *low return/response rate* (30-60%).


Response set bias

1. The tendency for subjects to respond to items on a questionnaire in a way that does not reflect the real situation accurately.
2. Subjects may tend to respond in a socially acceptable way (social desirability response set).
3. *To avoid*: The researcher may balance the occurrence of positively and negatively worded items (i.e., rewording statements to include the word "not") on an instrument in order to reduce the tendency for subjects to agree or disagree in a uniform way.


Semantic differential scale

1. Set of scales using pairs of adjectives that reflect opposite feelings.
2. Used to measure attitude, beliefs, or both.
3. Scored by assigning values from 1 to 7 to each of the spaces within each adjective pair, with 1 representing the negative extreme and 7 the positive extreme.



1. A set of numerical values assigned to responses that represent the degree to which respondents possess a particular attitude, value, or characteristic.
2. Purpose is to distinguish among people who show different intensities of the entity to be measured.
3. Three common types are Likert, semantic differential, and visual analogue.



1. A method of collecting data to describe, compare, or explain knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors.
2. A series of questions posed to a group of subjects.


Visual analogue scale (VAS)

1. Type of scale that measures *subjective phenomena* (e.g., pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, anxiety). The scale is *100 mm long* with anchors at each end quantifying *intensity*. Subjects are asked to mark a point on the line indicating the amount of the phenomenon experienced at that time.
2. The intensity of the phenomenon is scored by measuring the millimeters from the low end of the scale to the subject's mark.


Qualitative data

1. Can be observed, written, taped, or filmed through unstructured interviews, direct observation, case studies, field notes, diaries, or historical documents.
2. Useful for *preliminary investigation* of new areas and for understanding the *results* of quantitative analyses.
3. Advantages: Collecting the data does not require prior knowledge of the subject and individual variation can be recorded in depth.


Quantitative data

1. Numerical data that can be used directly (e.g., weight in pounds, height in inches, age in years) or to form categories (e.g., male or female) that can be formulated into counts or tables.
2. Advantages: Data can be analyzed without extreme effort, comparisons can be made, and hypotheses can be tested with well-developed statistical techniques.
3. If data are collected in a standardized, unbiased manner, insights and results may apply to other populations.


Quantitative data collection methods include the use of _



Guidelines for designing questionnaires

1. Ask questions that are *specific* rather than general.
2. Use simple language, with a style that is appropriate to the education and knowledge of the respondents.
3. Each question should represent *one* concept (for example, the question, "Do you wear seat belts when driving your car?" actually asks three questions).
4. *Delimit* any reference to time (words such as "often" make the question unclear).
5. Phrase questions in as *neutral* a way as possible (avoid wording that favors a certain answer).


Categorical response

1. A type of closed answer that respondents are asked to choose from a limited number of *mutually exclusive* alternatives.
2. A category of "Other: Specify" can be placed at the end of the list to allow for rare or uncontemplated responses.


Continuous response

1. Can accommodate a large range of values, representing a continuum - age, weight, height, blood pressure, etc. Values do not need to be coded.
2. Should specify the unit of measurement used in each value (e.g., ounces) and the level of precision desired (i.e., decimal places).


Guidelines for ordering questions

1. Start with the topic that the respondent will consider most useful or important.
2. Group questions that are similar in content and type (e.g., "yes" or "no").
3. Take advantage of relationships among groups of questions to build continuity throughout the questionnaire.
4. Questions about sensitive topics should be placed about two-thirds of the way into the questionnaire.
5. Demographic questions that the respondent might consider boring or personal should be placed at the end of the questionnaire.


Instruments dealing with attitudes about _ are particularly vulnerable to response sets.

Psychological or social issues.


Two ways in which the semantic differential scale differs from the Likert scale

1. Only two extremes are labeled.
2. The continuum is based not on agree/disagree but rather on opposite adjectives that express the respondent's feelings.


The method of measurement must closely fit the _ of the variable or concept.

Conceptual definition.


Biophysical measures

Quantitative techniques often used in nursing research to measure biological or physiological information - e.g., blood glucose, HbA1C, weight, and BMI.


Participant observation

1. Type of qualitative data collection used in *ethnographic research*. The key element is *involvement with subjects in their environment* and development of a trusting relationship.
2. Data are collected in an unstructured manner through field notes written in a journal while the researcher directly observes subjects in their natural setting.


Focus group interviews

1. Type of interview in which (usually) 6-12 individuals are asked to discuss a particular topic led by a facilitator. May result in more expressive responses due to the perception of "safety in numbers."
2. The goal is to observe the interactions among focus group members and detect their *attitudes, opinions, and solutions to specific topics* posed by the facilitator.


The use of _ sampling is most often employed when individuals known to have a desired expertise are sought for focus groups.



In quantitative studies, data collected usually take the form of _ when being analyzed.

Statistical operations.


In qualitative studies, data are elicited through _

Interviews and participant observation.


Psychosocial instruments for measuring concepts or phenomena in nursing are the most commonly used _ of data collection.

Quantitative method.


Which of the following is not a method of data collection? (Questionnaires; interviews; experiments; observations.)