Chapter 5 Applying Appropriate Theories and Conceptual Models Flashcards Preview

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1

Borrowed theories

1. Theories taken from *other disciplines* and applied to nursing questions and research problems.
2. Useful, but the *fit and relevance to nursing must be clarified* and should be clearly articulated within the study.
3. Examples: Theories from sociology; theory of planned behavior; operant conditioning; germ theory and principles of infection; gate control theory of pain management.

2

Concepts

1. *Symbolic statements* describing a phenomenon or a class of phenomena.
2. Theoretical definition - the concept is defined *in relation to other concepts* (i.e., in relation to a theory).
3. Operational definition - identifies empirical indicators of the concept, which permits *observation and measurement*.
4. Examples: Hypertension; stress; airplane; fatigue; mobility; job satisfaction.

3

Conceptual model

1. A set of abstract and general concepts that are assembled to address a phenomenon of interest. Sometimes referred to as theoretical framework or conceptual framework.
2. Represents ideas or notions that have been put together in a unique way (framework) to describe a particular area of concern.

4

Constructs

1. *Higher-level concepts* that are derived from theories and that represent *nonobservable behaviors*.
2. Examples: Motivation, intelligence, anxiety, self-concept, achievement, and aptitude.
3. May be comprised of two or more concepts: Illness vs. infection; cardiovascular status vs. hypertension.

5

Deductive approach

1. An approach to reasoning that generates theory by beginning with known facts, moving from the *general to the specific*. It is an approach used to *test predictions (hypotheses)* and validate existing relationships.
2. Moving from an *idea to observations* - a testing-oriented approach.
3. Laws > theories > concepts > facts > empirical observations.

6

Grand theories

1. Theories that are complex and *broad in scope*. Grand theories attempt to explain broad areas and include numerous *concepts that are not well defined* and that have ambiguous and unclear relationships.
2. Global and attempt to explain everything about a subject.
3. Because these theories are not grounded in empirical data, they are usually not useful guides for nursing practice.
4. Examples: Roy adaptation model; Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory; Neuman systems model; Watson's theory of human caring.

7

Inductive approach

1. An approach to reasoning that involves collecting observations that lead to conclusions or hypotheses. This approach moves from *specific observations to general statements* that can be tested through research.
2. Moving from *observations to an idea* - a discovery-oriented approach.
3. Empirical observations > facts > concepts > theories > laws.

8

Metaparadigm

Refers to the primary or central phenomena that are of interest to a particular discipline.

9

Middle-range theories

1. Theories that look at a *piece of reality* and that contain *clearly defined variables in which the nature and direction of relationships are specified*.
2. Purpose is to describe, explain, and predict phenomena; *unlike grand theories*, they are explicit and testable.
3. Have clear propositions from which *hypotheses* can be derived.
4. Examples: Pender's health promotion model; Benner's model of skills acquisition in nursing; Mishel's theory of uncertainty in illness; Kolcaba's theory of holistic comfort.

10

Nursing theory

A specific and concrete set of concepts and propositions that accounts for or characterizes phenomena of interest to the discipline of nursing.

11

Practice theories

1. Theories that are *more specific than middle-range theories* and that produce *specific directions or guidelines for practice*.
2. Also known as prescriptive theories; contain few concepts and are easily understandable; usually narrow in scope, limited to specific populations, and explain a small aspect of reality.
3. Examples: Theories of caring, empowerment, and communication; theories of clinical inference and clinical decision making; theories of suctioning, wound care, rest, and learning; theory of end-of-life decision making; theory of heart failure self care; theory of caucasians' cancer pain.

12

Theory

1. An organized and systematic set of interrelated statements (concepts) that specify the nature of relationships between two or more variables, with the purpose of *understanding a problem or nature of things*.
2. Offers a *view of reality* for the purpose of describing, explaining, or predicting the phenomena of interest.
3. Provides the *structure* for a research study, allowing the researcher to generalize beyond a specific situation and make predictions about what should happen in other, similar situations.

13

Researchers bring empirical findings into meaningful patterns that take the form of _

Theories.

14

Framework

The conceptual underpinnings of a study. Used interchangeably with "theoretical framework", "conceptual framework" and "conceptual model."

15

Inductive research underlies _ approaches to inquiry.

Qualitative.

16

Deductive reasoning helps to unveil _

Existing relationships.

17

Nursing's four metaparadigm concepts

1. Person - the individuals, families, communities, and other groups who are participants in nursing.
2. Environment - a person's significant others and physical surroundings, as well as the setting in which nursing occurs.
3. Health - the person's state of well-being at the time that nursing occurs.
4. Nursing - the definition of nursing, the action taken by nurses on behalf of or in conjunction with the person, and the goals or outcomes of nursing actions.

18

Nursing has recognized _ as appropriate for defining or refining the substantive component of nursing science and practice.

Middle-range nursing theories.

19

_ are the building blocks of a theory.

Concepts.

20

Compared to theories, conceptual models are _

Loosely structured.

21

Conceptual models of nursing

1. Provide direction for a study and present nursing in relation to the *four central metaparadigm concepts* (i.e., person, environment, health, nursing).
2. Frame the way in which nursing will be viewed and the direction a research study will take.
3. Advantage is that the researcher views a study from a nursing perspective from the beginning.

22

A theoretical framework, if used, should be mentioned/discussed _

1. In the problem statement (briefly).
2. At the end of the literature review, under its own heading.

23

Concepts are selected for a theoretical framework based on _

Their relevance to the phenomenon of interest.

24

Each concept included in the framework needs to be defined _

Conceptually and operationally in the methods section of the research report.

25

Nursing knowledge can be acquired through _

Inductive and deductive reasoning.

26

_ is the idea that knowledge comes from experience.

Empiricism.

27

Which scientific method focuses on testing hypotheses developed from theory?

Deductive.

28

Which of the following is characteristic of good theory or explanation? (It is parsimonious; It is testable; It is general enough to apply to more than one person, place, or situation; All of the above)

All of the above.

29

Theoretical definition vs. operational definition

1. Theoretical/conceptual definitions define/explain concepts in the context of theory/theoretical literature: "Childhood obesity is excess adiposity among children ages 2 to 18 years old."
2. Operational definitions define how concepts are measured to assess their presence and the amount/degree to which they exist: "Childhood obesity exists when a child has a BMI > 95th percentile for their age and gender (2 to 18 years)."