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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Selecting a Qualitative Research Design Deck (41)
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1

Bracketing

1. Identification of any *previous* knowledge, ideas, or beliefs about the phenomenon under investigation (phenomenology).
2. A reflective self-assessment whereby the researcher articulates assumptions, knowledge, and ideas that are brought to the research project about the particular phenomenon.
3. The researcher is to suspend the identified assumptions for the purpose of approaching the lived experience under study from a fresh perspective.

2

Category

Type of concept that is usually used for a higher level of abstraction.

3

Coding

Process by which data are conceptualized.

4

Confirmability

Method used to establish the *scientific rigor* of phenomenological research. It has three elements: auditability, credibility, and fittingness. Auditability requires the reader to be able to follow the researcher's decision path and reach a similar conclusion. Credibility requires that the phenomenological description of the lived experience be recognized by people in the situation as an accurate description of their own experience. Fittingness requires that the phenomenological description is grounded in the lived experience and reflects typical and atypical elements of the experience.

5

Constant comparative method

Form of qualitative data analysis that categorizes units of meaning through a process of comparing incident to incident until concepts emerge - *grounded theory*.

6

Essences

Elements or structured units that give an understanding of the lived experience.

7

Ethnography

1. A qualitative research approach developed by anthropologists, involving the study and description of a *culture in the natural setting*. The researcher is intimately involved in the data collection process and seeks to understand fully how life unfolds for the particular culture under study.
2. Examines the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of sociological units. The researcher becomes immersed in the subject's way of life to understand cultural forces that shape behavior and feelings.

8

Fieldwork

An anthropological research approach that involves prolonged residence with members of the culture that is being studied. Field notes are written as detailed descriptions of researchers' observations, experiences, and conversations in the "field" (research setting).

9

Grounded theory

1. *Discovery of a theory* from data that have been systematically obtained through research.
2. Based on the sociological philosophy of symbolic interaction.
3. The researcher collects, codes, and analyzes data simultaneously and identifies relevant variables, leading to the development of theoretical concepts that are "grounded" in observations. The purpose is to *develop a theory that will explain what is observed*.

10

Lived experience

The focus of phenomenology. It consists of everyday experiences of an individual in the context of normal pursuits. It is what is real and true to the individual.

11

Memos

Write-up of ideas about codes and their relationships as they occur to the researcher while coding.

12

Participant observation

A technique in anthropological fieldwork. It involves direct observation of everyday life in study participants' natural settings and participation in their lifestyle and activities to the greatest extent possible.

13

Phenomenology

1. A philosophy and research method that explores and describes *everyday experience* as it appears to human consciousness in order to generate and enhance the understanding of what it means to be human. Phenomenology limits philosophical inquiry to acts of consciousness.
2. A descriptive, *retrospective*, in-depth reflective analysis of a conscious lived experience.
3. Purpose is to *describe* the intrinsic traits or essences of the lived experience (not simply to focus on themes).
4. Relies on *narrative subjective experiences* to study the essence of an experience as perceived by the individual.

14

Purposive sampling

Selecting and interviewing participants who have actually *lived and experienced the phenomena of interest* - used in *phenomenology*.

15

Saturation

Point when data collection is terminated because no new descriptions and interpretations of the lived experience are coming from the study participants (phenomenology).

16

Symbolic interaction

Theoretical orientation to qualitative research; focus is on the nature of social interaction among individuals.

17

Theoretical sampling

Process used in data collection that is controlled by the emerging theory; researcher collects, codes, and analyzes the data.

18

Purpose of qualitative research

To examine individual experiences using a holistic approach that is concerned with the nature of "reality" as the participants understand it.

19

Qualitative designs are approaches used to discover knowledge and understand rich descriptions of meanings from _ experiences.

Social.

20

_ assesses and systematically relates human knowledge and experience from an integrating perspective.

Philosophy.

21

In phenomenology, _ sampling is used, and data collection continues until _ occurs.

Purposive; saturation.

22

Informed consent

The knowledgeable and expressed choice of an individual to participate in a research project without coercion, deceit, or duress.

23

Some IRBs have an expedited review process for _ research proposals because restricting access to treatment and manipulation of the interventions are not part of these study designs.

Qualitative.

24

Interviews conducted in phenomenology are usually _

Unstructured. (The researcher may rephrase the participant's statements, ask follow-up questions, or request multiple interviews as needed to elicit a full description of the experience.)

25

_ is not relevant in phenomenology because the data is contextual; no generalizations can be made.

Validity.

26

A _ is usually *not* preceded by an extensive literature review and synthesis.

Phenomenology.

27

A research approach that involves prolonged residence with members of a culture being studied is often referred to as _

Field work. (Residence of 5 months to 5 years in the culture.)

28

A form of qualitative statistical analysis that categorizes unit of meaning through a process of comparing incident to incident is termed _

Constant comparative method.

29

Qualitative research, especially a grounded theory approach, often generates _ theory.

Mid-level.

30

The use of naturalistic settings is important because qualitative researchers consider the _ to be very important in understanding a phenomenon.

Context. (Reality is socially constructed, and we share beliefs and experiences around phenomena of interest, but reality is also linked to how each individual experiences reality in his/her own way - i.e., multiple realities.)