Chapter 4 Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Terms Deck (62):
1

society

Relationships among human beings.

2

Creation Mandate

God told Adam and Eve to fill the earth with people and to have dominion over society for God's Glory. Gen 1:28, and Gen 9:1 Be fruitful, and multiply and replenish the earth.

3

humanism

Belief that human thought and values (rather than religious thoughts or values) should be the central features of culture and that humans can on their own solve all of their problems.

4

dialect

Speech patterns within a language that can vary widely.

5

culture subregion

culture regions that display increasingly similar characteristics.

6

culture region

Is a human society that shares the same basic culture.

7

culture

Society's total way of life including traditions and institutions.

8

language families

Groups of languages that share many common characteristics.

9

Language families of the world (see map)

Indo-European
Sino Tibetan
Malayo-Polynesian
Afro-Asiatic
Niger-Kordofian
Dravidian
Japanese-Korean
Uralic and Altaic
Austro-Asiatic
Nilo-Saharan
Other

10

Nuclear family.

Man his wife and children.

11

Extended family.

The nuclear family plus grandparents uncles aunts and cousins.

12

Nation

A large group of people with a common history and language who have developed a strong sense of identity.

13

Nation State.

A nation that has established it's own government or state.

14

Empire

When one nation conquers other nations beyond its borders

15

Political maps

Shows the boundaries that a state has drawn around its people.

16

Political boundaries

They mark the limit of a states authority over the lives of people.

17

Natural boundaries

Landmarks.

18

Geometric boundaries

Connects geometric points or follow lines of latitude or longitude.

19

demography

Study of human populations and their characteristics

20

vital statistics

Official records of births, marriages, divorces and deaths.

21

Censuses

Official government counts of the entire population within the nation's boundaries.

22

surveys

Counts of small samples of the total population.

23

crude birthrate

Number of children born per 1000 people.

24

crude deathrate

Number of people who die per 1000 people.

25

rate of natural increase

crude birth rate - crude death rate

26

life expectancy

Number of years a person can expect to live.

27

infant mortality

# of live births - # of infants who die in their first year (per thousand live births).

28

urban areas

small area which has a large # of buildings and people

29

rural areas

large area with few people and buildings

30

urbanization

growth of urban areas at expense of rural areas

31

suburbs

a residential community outside city limits but not in the rural area farther away.

32

population density

average # of people on each square mile (or km) of land.

33

arable land

land that can be used to raise crops

34

physiological density

total population / arable land area

35

government

rule of man over man

36

justice

system of laws and courts to settle disputes between citizens

37

defense

police foce to protect law-abiding citizens from foreign attack.

38

anarchy

when no system of government exists and people are doing whatever they want.

39

Authoritarian government

Hold power by claiming an authority higher than the people they govern.

40

Types of authoritarian governments

absolute monarchy (Saudi Arabia)
dictatorship (Cuba, Germany under Hitler)
totalitarian (North Korea)

41

Absolute monarchy

Authority by birth, rules as he/she pleases. (Think about the old kings/queens during the protestant reformation.)

42

Dictatorship

Person who rules by the authority of the military.

43

Totalitarian government

Most extreme authoritarian government type. Make decisions about every deal of citizen's lives for the "good" of the country.

44

Elected governments

Rely on the the consent of the people to keep their position. (Voting is common)

45

Democracy

Form of government whereby the people rule themselves.

46

Direct democracy

Every citizen could vote on every law and issue that comes before the government. (ancient greek - city states)

47

Indirect (representative) democracy

Citizens elect representatives who vote on laws for them. People have the opportunity to voice their opinion and/or run for office if they wish.

48

Constitutional monarchy

People limit the power of the monarch by law. He/she functions as a figurehead. The real power belongs to an elected legislature. (Great Britain)

49

Republic

Republics elect their national leader (president) who supervises the bureaucracy while the elected legislature(s) write the laws. (US)

50

Types of modern democracies

Constitutional monarchy
Republic

51

Foreign policy

Principals that guide a government's relationships with other countries.

52

Foreign policy alternatives

War
Negotiation

53

Rogue nation

A country that ignores the most fundamental principles of international relations and willing uses any type of weapon or means it deems necessary to get its way or increase its power. Even if it means using weapons against their own citizens.

54

Diplomacy

Art of negotiating agreements between nations.

55

Treaties

Formal agreements between nations.

56

Peace treaties

Formal agreement between enemies usually at war.

57

Military Alliances

Agreements between friendly nations to assist one another.

58

NATO

North American Treaty Organization created to protect the western hemisphere from Soviet threat.

59

UN

United Nations - a neutral place to negotiate peaceful solutions to disputes.

60

Geneva Convention

A treaty establishing bass rules for how nations should treat wounded soldiers and prisoners of war. This is monitored by the International Red Cross.

61

self-determination

All peoples have a right to vote for the type of government they will have.

62

territorial integrity

Defensible boundaries of a country.