chapter 6: hearing, balance, taste, and smell Flashcards Preview

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1

decibel (dB)

a measure of sound intensity, perceived as loudness

2

hertz (Hz)

cycles per second, as of an auditory stimuli; measure of frequency

3

pure tone

one frequency of vibration, represented by a sine wave

4

amplitude

perceived as loudness, expressed in decibels (dB), also called intensity

5

frequency

perceived as pitch, measured in hertz (Hz)

6

fundamental

basic frequency

7

harmonics

multiples of the fundamental

8

timbre

sound quality, notes differ in intensities when played by different instruments

9

transduction

the conversion of one form of energy to another

10

pinna

the external part of the ear

11

ear canal

the tube leading from the pinna to the tympanic membrane, also called auditory canal

12

inner ear

the cochlea and vestibular apparatus

13

middle ear

the cavity between the tympanic membrane and the cochlea

14

tympanic membrane

the partition between the external ear and the middle ear, also called eardrum

15

ossicles

three small bones (incus, malleus, and stapes) that transmit vibration across the middle ear, from the tympanic membrane to the oval window

16

oval window

the opening from the middle ear to the inner ear

17

malleus

a middle ear bone that is connected to the tympanic membrane

Latin for "hammer"

18

incus

a middle ear bone situated between the malleus and the stapes

Latin for "anvil"

19

stapes

a middle ear bone that is connected to the oval window

Latin for "stirrup"

20

cochlea

a snail-shaped structure in the inner ear that contains the primary receptor cells for hearing

21

vestibular canal

one of the three principal canals running along the length of the cochlea

also called scala vestibuli

22

middle canal

the central of the three spiraling canals inside the cochlea, situated between the vestibular canal and tympanic canal

also called scala media

23

tympanic canal

one of the three principal canals running along the length of the cochlea

also called scala tympani

24

round window

a membrane separating the tympanic canal from the middle ear

25

organ of Corti

a structure in the inner ear that lies on the basilar membrane of the cochlea and contains the hair cells and terminations of the auditory nerve

26

hair cell

one of the receptor cells for hearing in the cochlea

27

basilar membrane

a membrane in the cochlea that contains the principal structures involved in auditory transduction

28

stereocilium

a relatively stiff hair that protrudes from a hair cell in the auditory or vestibular system

29

inner hair cell (IHC)

one of the two types of receptor cells for hearing in the cochlea; positioned close to the central axis of the coiled cochlea

30

outer hair cell (OHC)

one of the two types of receptor cells for hearing in the cochlea; positioned far from the central axis of the coiled cochlea