chapter 6: hearing, balance, taste, and smell Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 6: hearing, balance, taste, and smell Deck (76):
1

decibel (dB)

a measure of sound intensity, perceived as loudness

2

hertz (Hz)

cycles per second, as of an auditory stimuli; measure of frequency

3

pure tone

one frequency of vibration, represented by a sine wave

4

amplitude

perceived as loudness, expressed in decibels (dB), also called intensity

5

frequency

perceived as pitch, measured in hertz (Hz)

6

fundamental

basic frequency

7

harmonics

multiples of the fundamental

8

timbre

sound quality, notes differ in intensities when played by different instruments

9

transduction

the conversion of one form of energy to another

10

pinna

the external part of the ear

11

ear canal

the tube leading from the pinna to the tympanic membrane, also called auditory canal

12

inner ear

the cochlea and vestibular apparatus

13

middle ear

the cavity between the tympanic membrane and the cochlea

14

tympanic membrane

the partition between the external ear and the middle ear, also called eardrum

15

ossicles

three small bones (incus, malleus, and stapes) that transmit vibration across the middle ear, from the tympanic membrane to the oval window

16

oval window

the opening from the middle ear to the inner ear

17

malleus

a middle ear bone that is connected to the tympanic membrane

Latin for "hammer"

18

incus

a middle ear bone situated between the malleus and the stapes

Latin for "anvil"

19

stapes

a middle ear bone that is connected to the oval window

Latin for "stirrup"

20

cochlea

a snail-shaped structure in the inner ear that contains the primary receptor cells for hearing

21

vestibular canal

one of the three principal canals running along the length of the cochlea

also called scala vestibuli

22

middle canal

the central of the three spiraling canals inside the cochlea, situated between the vestibular canal and tympanic canal

also called scala media

23

tympanic canal

one of the three principal canals running along the length of the cochlea

also called scala tympani

24

round window

a membrane separating the tympanic canal from the middle ear

25

organ of Corti

a structure in the inner ear that lies on the basilar membrane of the cochlea and contains the hair cells and terminations of the auditory nerve

26

hair cell

one of the receptor cells for hearing in the cochlea

27

basilar membrane

a membrane in the cochlea that contains the principal structures involved in auditory transduction

28

stereocilium

a relatively stiff hair that protrudes from a hair cell in the auditory or vestibular system

29

inner hair cell (IHC)

one of the two types of receptor cells for hearing in the cochlea; positioned close to the central axis of the coiled cochlea

30

outer hair cell (OHC)

one of the two types of receptor cells for hearing in the cochlea; positioned far from the central axis of the coiled cochlea

31

vestibulocochlear nerve

cranial nerve VIII, which runs from the cochlea to the brainstem auditory nuclei

32

tuning curve

a graph of the responses of a single auditory nerve fiber or neuron to sounds that vary in frequency and intensity

33

cochlear nucleus

either of the two brainstem nuclei – left and right – that receive input from auditory hair cells and send output to the superior olivary nuclei

34

superior olivary nucleus

either of the two brainstem nuclei – left and right – in the thalamus that receive input from both right and left cochlear nuclei, and provide the first binaural analysis of auditory information

35

inferior colliculi

paired gray matter structures of the dorsal midbrain that process auditory information

36

medial geniculate nucleus

either of the two nuclei – left and right – in the thalamus that receive input from the inferior colliculi and send output to the auditory cortex

37

tonotopic organization

a major organizational feature in auditory systems, in which neurons are arranged as an orderly map of stimulus frequency, with cells responsive to high frequencies located at a distance from those responsive to low frequencies

38

place coding

frequency discrimination in which the pitch of a sound is determined by the location of activated hair cells along the length of the basilar membrane

39

temporal coding

frequency discrimination in which the pitch of a sound is determined by the rate of firing of auditory neurons

40

ultrasound

high-frequency sound; in general, above the threshold for human hearing, at about 20,000 Hz

41

infrasound

very low-frequency sound; in general, below the threshold for human hearing, at about 20 Hz

42

intensity difference

a perceived difference in loudness between the two ears, which the nervous system can use to localize a sound source

43

latency difference

a difference between the two ears in the time of arrival of a sound, which the nervous system can use to localize a sound source

44

spectral filtering

the process by which the hills and valleys of the external ear alter the amplitude of some, but not all, frequencies in a sound

45

amusia

a disorder characterized by the inability to discern tunes accurately or to sing

46

conduction deafness

a hearing impairment in which the sound vibrations in air fail to be converted into waves of fluid in the cochlea; associated with defects of the external or middle ear

47

sensorineural deafness

a hearing impairment most often caused by the permanent damage or destruction of hair cells, or by interruption of the vestibulocochlear nerve that carries auditory information to the brain

48

tinnitus

a sensation of noises or ringing in the ears not caused by external sound

49

central deafness

a hearing impairment in which the auditory areas of the brain fail to process and interpret action potentials from sound stimuli in meaningful ways; related to damage in auditory brain areas, such as strokes, tumors, or traumatic injuries

50

word deafness

a form of central deafness that is characterized by the specific inability to hear words, although other sounds can be detected

51

cortical deafness

a form of central deafness, caused by damage to both sides of the auditory cortex, that is characterized by difficulty in recognizing all complex sounds, whether verbal or nonverbal

52

cochlear implant

an electromechanical device that detects sounds and selectively stimulates nerves in different regions of the cochlea via surgically implanted electrodes

53

vestibular system

the sensory system that detects balance; consists of several small inner-ear structures that adjoin the cochlea

54

semicircular canal

any one of the three fluid-filled tubes in the inner ear that are part of the vestibular system; each of the tubes, which are at right angles to each other, detects angular acceleration in a particular direction

55

ampulla

an enlarged region of each semicircular canal that contains the receptor cells (hair cells) of the vestibular system

56

vestibular nucleus

a brainstem nucleus that receives information from the vestibular organs through cranial nerve VIII (the vestibulocochlear nerve)

57

motion sickness

the experience of nausea brought on by unnatural passive movement, as in car or boat

58

sensory conflict theory

a theory of motion sickness suggesting that discrepancies between vestibular information and visual information simulate food poisoning and therefore trigger nausea

59

taste

any of the five basic sensations detected by the tongue: salty, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami

60

flavor

the sense of taste combined with the sense of smell

61

papilla

a small bump that projects from the surface of the tongue; contains most of the taste receptor cells

62

taste bud

a cluster of 50-150 cells that detects tastes; found in the papillae

63

TR1

a family of taste receptor proteins that, when particular members bind together, form taste receptors for sweet and umami flavors

64

TR2

a family of bitter taste receptors

65

umami

one of the five basic tastes – the meaty, savory flavor

66

gustatory system

the sensory system that detects taste

67

odor

the sensation of smell

68

olfaction

the sensory system that detects smell; the act of smelling

69

anosmia

the inability to detect odors

70

olfactory epithelium

a sheet of cells, including olfactory receptors, that lines the dorsal portion of the nasal cavities and adjacent regions, including the septum that separates the left and right nasal cavities

71

olfactory bulb

an anterior projection of the brain that terminates in the upper nasal passages and, through small openings in the skull, provides receptors for smell

72

glomerulus

a complex arbor of dendrites from a group of olfactory cells

73

pheromone

a chemical signal that is released outside the body of an animal and affects other members of the same species

74

vomeronasal system

a specialized sensory system that detects pheromones and transmits information to the brain

75

vomeronasal organ (VNO)

a collection of specialized receptor cells, near to but separate from the olfactory epithelium, that detect pheromones and send electrical signals to the accessory olfactory bulb in the brain

76

trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR)

any one of a family of probable pheromone receptors produced by neurons in the main olfactory epithelium