Chapter 6: Launching a New Nation Flashcards Preview

U.S. History > Chapter 6: Launching a New Nation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6: Launching a New Nation Deck (34):
0

Judiciary Act of 1789

S P

Deifnition: Law that established the federal court system and any of the supreme court justices that provided for the appeal of certain state court decisions to the federal court

Significance: This took some power away from the states, and gave power to the government

1

Alexander Hamilton

S P

Definition: The first secretary of treasury appointed by George Washington. He was a part of the very first cabinet

Significance: He helped guide George Washington in governing a newfound country

2

Cabinet

S P

Definition: Group of department heads who serve as the President's chief advisors

Significance: The formation of the cabinet helped the President make tough decisions

3

Bank of the United States

S P E

Definition: Either of the two national banks, funded by the federal government and private investors, established by congress. The first one was in 1791 as the second was 1816

Significance: The national banks give the people a place to invest in money and gives the government control over that investment

4

Democratic-Republicans

S P

Definition: Political party known for its support in strong state government, founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1792 in opposition to the Federalist Party

Significance: This is the political party that later splits into two, making for the Democratic and Republicans

5

Two Party System

S P

Definition: A political system that involves two major political parties

Significance: This is the system that grows and matures into the very same system that is used in the USA today

6

Protective Tariff

S P E

Definition: A tax on imported goods that is interested to protect a nation's business from foreign competition

7

Excise Tax

S P E

Definition: A tax on the production, sale, or consumption of goods produced within a country

Significance: This makes the citizens angry and upset with the government imposement of the new tax

8

Neutrality

S R

Definition: A refusal to take part in wars between other nations

Significance: The quakers are exempted from the draft

9

Edmund Genet

S P

Definition: French diplomat that rounded up American citizens for war against Britain

Significance: He is seen as a radical because of his support for France and some citizens idolize him because of it

10

Thomas Pinckey

S

Definition: Signer of the treaty between Spain

Significance: Brought peace between waring nations

11

Little Turtle

S P

Definition: Miami Indian tribe that brought conflict amount the states

Significance: This tribe showed how the Native Americans never left, despite the formation of a new country

12

John Jay

S P

Definition: Chief justice of the supreme court who negotiate a treaty with Britain

Significance: He tried to help bring about peace between the US and Britain

13

Sectionalism

S P

Definition: The placing of the interests for one's own region ahead of the nation as a whole

Significance: This caused tension between the state and nation

14

XYZ Affair

S P E

Definition: A 1779 affair in which French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. Officials

Significance: This angered the US and damaged the relationship between the US and France

15

Alien and Sedition Acts

S P

Definition: A series of four laws enacted in 1796 to reduce political power of recent immigrants to the United States

Significance:This took away some of the political power instated in the government against immigrants

16

Nullification

S P

Definition: The state's refusal to recognize an act of congress that it considers unconstitutional

Significance: This gives the states power over the national government, later becoming grounds for succession

17

Aaron Burr

S P

Definition: Jefferson’s running mate, who received the same number of votes in the electoral college as Jefferson. The House of Representatives had to be called upon to choose between the two highest vote getters.

Significnce: This shows the electoral collage's importance in the voting system

18

John Marshall

S P

Definition: Staunch Federalist who was appointed by Jefferson as chief justice of the supreme court

Significance: He gave the supreme court ideas that were rooted from Federalist notions

19

Judiciary Act of 1801

S P

Definition: The law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing president John Adams to fill most of the new posts with federalists

Significance: This allowed more federalist persuasion in the federal court

20

Midnight Judges

S P

Definition: One of the judges appointed by John Adams in the last hours of his admissions

Significance: These judges were last minute in their appointment, making for a hasty decision

21

Marbury VS Madison

S P

Definition: A 1803 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that it had the power to abolish legislative acts by declaring them unconstitutional; this power came to be known as the judiciary review

Significance: This gave the Supreme Court power over the legislature

22

Judiciary Review

S P

Definition: The Supreme Court's power to declare an act of congress unconstitutional

Significance: This gives the Supreme Court massive power over congress

23

Louisiana Purchase

S P E

Definition: The 1803 purchase of the United States of France's Louisiana territory-extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains-for $15 million

Significance:This greatly expanded the US's borders, providing more land and crops and trade routes

24

Sacajewa

S I

Definition:Interpreter and guide for Lewis and Clark

Significance: She helped explore the American continent

25

Blockade

S P I E

Definition: The usage of ships or troops to prevent into and out of a port or region controlled by a hostile nation

Significance: This tactic is used many time throughout history, making for an effective war strategy

26

Impressment

S P E

Definition: The forcible seizure of men for military service

Significance: By using impressment, it made citizens angry and upset with their ruling government

27

Embargo

S P E

Definition: A government ban on trade with one or more other nations

Significance: This cuts off the income on exports and imports within the opposing nation, making a clever tactic for war strategy

28

William Henry Harrison

S P I E

Definition: Governor of the Indiana Territory, who invited several Native American chiefs to Fort Wayne, Indiana, and persuaded them to sign away three million acres of tribal land to the U.S. government.

Significance: He got the U.S. more territory in a peaceful agreement with the Indians, making for less dispute

29

Tecumseh

S P I

Definition: Shawnee chief who favored confederacy in retaliation against the U.S.

Significance: He brought some Indians together, causing conflict again between America and the Natives

30

War Hawk

S P

Definition: One of the members of congress who favored war with Britain in the early 19th century

Significance: These people urged another war, one of which the newly founded U.S. could not support

31

Andrew Jackson

S P

Defintion: American general with many feats

Significance: He won the U.S. many battles with his brilliant combat techniques

32

Treaty of Ghent

S P

Definition: An 1814 treaty that ended the war of 1812

Significance: This treaty brought peace between Britain and the U.S.

33

Armistice

S P

Definition: A truce, or an agreement to end an armed conflict

Significance: This makes peace throughout all nations