Chapter 6: Special Senses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Special Senses Deck (109)
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General senses

Touch, Temperature, Pressure & Pain "TTPP"

1

Special senses

Smell, Hearing, Equilibrium, Taste & Sight "SHETS"

2

70% of all sensory receptors are in here. It has over a million nerve fibers.

Eyes

3

Protection for the eye: most of the eye is enclosed in a _________. And cushion of ____ surrounds most of the eye.

Bony orbit. Fat.

4

Early ______: optic vesicle forms a two-layered ______: overlying ectoderm forms a ________.

Week 4. Optic cup. Lens pit.

5

______ week 4: optic cup ______ and forms inner & outer layers; lens pit forms ________.

Late. Deepens. Lens vesicle.

6

Week __: lens become an ______ structure. ______, _______ & _______ start to form.

6. Internal. Cornea, Sclera & Choroid.

7

Includes sclera & cornea

Corneoscleral coat

8

A vascular layer including choroid, ciliary body & iris.

Uvea

9

Third layer of the eyeball includes

Retina, including outer pigment epithelium & inner neutral retina

10

Sclera consists ____________ making it opaque.m

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

11

Covers the anterior one sixth of the eye, and is continuous with the fibrous sclera posteriorly.

Sclera

12

5 layers of the Cornea

Stratified squamous non keratinizing corneal epithelium, Bowman's membrane, Corneal stroma(substancia propia), Descemet's membrane & Simple squamous, the corneal endothelium "SBC DiS"

13

Made of 60 layers of long type I collagen fibers arranged in a precise orthogonal array and alternating flattened cells called _______.

Stroma. Keratocytes.

14

Corneal epithelium rests on _______. _______ is avascular.

Bowman's membrane. Stroma.

15

In uvea, _______ extends inwards to form a ring-like thickening. With _______ on its anterior third. _______ of the lens arises from the ciliary process. Ciliary body continues posteriorly until it merges with the retina at ________.

Ciliary body extends. Ciliary process. Suspensory ligament(zonular ligament). Ora serrata.

16

Consists mainly of choroid, has a dark brown colour. _________, which helps to reduce glare within the eye. Many venous plexuses and capillaries.

Uvea. Melanin pigment.

17

Is where transparent corneal stroma emerges with opaque, vascular sclera.

Limbus or Corneoscleral junction

18

Stroma of limbus contains _________, or canal ________, which receives aqueous humor from _______.

Scleral venous sinus. Schlemm. Anterior chamber.

19

In uvea, this extends over the anterior surface of the lens from the anterior border of the ciliary body.

Iris

20

Iris consists of 5 layers: 1. A discontinuous layer of _______ & ______.

Fibroblast & Melanocytes.

21

Iris consists of 5 layers: 2. The avascular anterior _________.

Stromal sheet(lamella)

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Iris consists of 5 layers: 3. A vascular layer of __________ forming the bulk of the _____.

Loose connective tissue. Iris.

23

Iris consists of 5 layers: 4. The posterior membrane containing the ____________ and _________ muscles.

Circular sphincter pupillae & Radial dilator pupillae muscles "CR"

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Iris consists of 5 layers: A double layer of ________ epithelium.

Pigmented

25

Including outer pigment epithelium, inner neural retina and epithelium, ciliary body and iris.

Retina

26

Layer 3 retina: Composed of the basal lamina of Muller's cells

Inner limiting membrane

27

Layer 3 retina: Processes of ganglion cells traveling to the brain

Layer optic nerve fiber

28

Layer 3 retina: cell bodies of ganglion cells

Ganglion cell layer

29

Layer 3 retina: 2nd synaptic layer, between horizontal, amacrine and bipolar cells and ganglion cells

Inner plexiform layer

30

Layer 3 retina: cell bodies of horizontal, amacrine, bipolar and Muller's cells

Inner nuclear layer

31

Layer 3 retina: 1st synaptic layer, between photoreceptors and horizontal, amacrine and bipolar cells

Outer plexiform layer

32

Layer 3 retina: cell bodies of rods and cones

Outer nuclear layer

33

Layer 3 retina: apical boundary of Muller's cells

Outer limiting membrane

34

Layer 3 retina: inner & outer segments of photoreceptor cells

Layer of rods and cones

35

Layer 3 retina: melanin containing cells

Retinal Pigment Epithelium

36

Following the path of light, what are the layers

ILL, NFL, GL, IPL, INL, OPL, ONL, OLL, RCL & PL

37

Sensory retinal receptors, the ____ are about 20x as numerous as the cones. The rods and cones differ in their distribution along the _______. In humans, a modified region of the retina, the _____, contains only cones is adapted for high visual acuity.m

Rods. Retina. Fovea.

38

For central vision, during bright light vision, and in color discrimination.

Cones

39

Peripheral vision and during dim light vision

Rods

40

The outer segments of rods and cones contain the visual pigments

Rhodopsin and Iodopsin

41

Epithelium of ciliary process: double layer of pigmented and nonpigmented epithelial ________ or ________ cells. No true basal lamina is present. Beneath the double epithelium is a core of connective tissue with many small blood vessels. Fluid from these vessels is pumped by the epithelial cells out of the ciliary processes as _________.

Low columnar or cuboidal cells. Aqueous humor.

42

Three chambers of the eye

Anterior chamber, Vitreous space & Posterior chamber

43

Chamber of the eye: between the posterior surface of the iris and the anterior surface of the lens

Posterior chamber

44

Chamber of the eye: between the posterior surface of the lens and the neural retina

Vitreous space

45

Chamber of the eye: between the cornea and the iris

Anterior chamber

46

Unpigmented layer of ciliary process > aqueous humor in posterior chamber > passes through pupillary aperture > aqueous humor in anterior chamber > Drains via ___________ (canal of schlemm)

sclero venous sinus

47

Transparent, avascular, biconvex structure, suspended by suspensory ligament of the lens.

Lens of the eye

48

3 components of the lens of the eye

Lens capsule, Subscapular epithelium & Lens fibers "LSL"

49

3 components of the lens of the eye: lens capsule, produced by __________.

Anterior lens cells

50

3 components of the lens of the eye: ________, a cuboidal/columnar layer of cells that is only present on the anterior surface of the lens

Subscapular epithelium

51

3 components of the lens of the eye: _______ derived from the subscapular epithelial cells

Lens fibres

52

Is a thick, homogenous external lamina formed by the epithelial cells and fibres.

Lens capsule

53

Anterior surface of the lens, is covered by what epithelium

Simple columnar lens epithelium

54

Still have their nuclei, but are greatly elongating and filling their cytoplasm with proteins called ________.

Differentiating lens fibers. Crystallins.

55

Have lost their nuclei and become densely packed to produce a unique transparent structure

Mature lens fibers

56

Thin, transparent mucous membrane. Lateral margin of cornea. Across sclera and covering internal surface of eyelids. __________, containing many goblet cells, that rests on a lamina propria of loose connective tissue.

Conjunctiva of the eye. Stratified columnar epithelium.

57

Major divisions of the ear

External, Middle & Internal regions of the right ear

58

The inner ear consists of

2 labyrinthine compartments

59

2 labyrinthine compartments include

Bony(osseous) labyrinth & Membranous layer "BM"

60

labyrinthine compartments: in the petrous portion of the temporal bone

Bony(osseous) labyrinth

61

labyrinthine compartments: within the bony labyrinth

Membranous labyrinth

62

In the bony labyrinth: ________ the central space of the bony labyrinth

Vestibule

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In the bony labyrinth: _________ extending from the vestibule posteriorly

Semicircular canals

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In the bony labyrinth: extending from the vestibule anteriorly

Cochlea

65

In the membranous labyrinth: utricle and saccule, connected by the

Utricosaccular duct

66

In the membranous labyrinth: __________, within the semicircular canals

Membranous semicircular ducts

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In the membranous labyrinth: ___________, within the bony cochlea, continuous with saccule

Membranous cochlear duct

68

Houses a fluid-filled membranous labyrinth

Bony labyrinth

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Includes organs for sense of equilibrium and balance ( ________, ______ & _______) and cochlea for the sense of hearing

Membranous labyrinth. Saccule, utricle and semicircular ducts "SUS"

70

Is the awareness of the position and movement of the head

Equilibrium/Vestibular sense

71

Receptors of Equilibrium

Maculae & Cristae Ampullaris

72

Maculae are located in the epithelial walls of the _______ & _______ in the vestibular complex. Contain _______ to detect the orientation of the stationary head and linear acceleration of the moving head.

Utricle & Saccule. Hair cells.

73

Is composed of hair cells, supporting cells, and endings of the vestibular branch of the eight cranial nerve. Covered by a gelatinous ________ layer or membrane.

Macular wall. Otolithic.

74

Are crystalline structures in the outer part of the otolithic membrane. Composed of _________ on a matrix of proteoglycans. Facilitates bending of the _________ & _________ embedded in this membrane by the gravity or the movement of the head.

Otoliths. Calcium carbonate. Kinocilia & Stereocilia.

75

Two types of hair cells

Basal ends of type I hair cells & Type II hair cells

76

Are _______ and associated with typical buoton synaptic connections to their afferents

Type II hair cells. Columnar.

77

Are rounded and enclosed within a nerve calyx on the afferent fiber

Basal ends of type I hair

78

Wall of the each ampulla is raised as a ridge called

Crista ampullaris

79

Hair cells of crista epithelium with hair bundles project into a dome shape proteoglycans called

Cupula

80

Cupula is attached to opposite wall and is moved by

Endolymph

81

The bony cochlea has three compartments

Scala vestibuli, Scala tympani & Scala media

82

Upper compartment of the bony cochlea

Scala vestibuli

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Lower compartment of the bony cochlea

Scala tympani

84

Middle compartment of the bony cochlea

Scala media

85

Organs of Hearing : located within the cochlea. Gel like tectorial membrane is capable of bending hair cells. __________ attached to hair cells transmit nerve impulses to auditory cortex on temporal lobe.

Organ of Corti. Cochlear nerve.

86

Receptor of Organ of Corti

Hair cells on the basilar membrane

87

Mechanisms of Hearing: vibrations from sound waves move ________. Hair cells are bent by the membrane. An action potential starts in the __________. Continued stimulation can lead to adaptation.

Tectorial membrane. Cochlear nerve.

88

Two types of cells of Organ of Corti

Hair cells & Supporting cells

89

Tall, slender cells extending from the basilar membrane tomthe free surface of the organs of Corti.

Supporting cells

90

The sense of smell

Olfaction

91

Olfactory receptors are in the

Roof of the nasal cavity

92

Olfactory receptors: neurons with _________. Chemicals must be dissolved in mucus for detection. Impulses are transmitted via the _________. Interpretation of smells is made in the _______.

Long cilia. Olfactory nerve. Cortex.

93

Houses the receptor organs of the taste

Taste buds

94

Location of taste buds

Most are in the tongue. Soft palate and cheeks.

95

The tongue is covered with projections called

Papillae

96

Sharp with no taste buds

Filiform papillae

97

Rounded with taste buds

Fungiform papillae

98

Large papillae with taste buds

Circumvallate papillae

99

Taste buds are found on the

Sides of papillae

100

Receptor cell of the taste buds

Gustatory cells

101

Gustatory cells have ______. Hairs are stimulated by chemicals dissolved in ______.

Long microvilli. Saliva.

102

Impulses are carried to the _______ by several cranial nerves because taste buds are found in different areas: _____, ______ & _______.

Gustatory complex. Facial nerve, Glossopharyngeal nerve & Vagus nerve.

103

Types of deafness

Conduction & Sensorineural

104

Hearing loss, vertigo and tinnitus

Meniere's syndrome

105

Peripheral, central or psychogenic

Vertigo

106

Middle ear problem

Otitis media

107

Inner ear problem

Labyrinthitis

108

Eardrum problem

Myringitis/tympanitis