Flashcards in Repro: Female Deck (293)
Consist of two ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina and external genitalia.
Female Reproductive System
Function of Female RS: produce female _______. (________)
Function of Female RS: Provide environment for ________.
Function of Female RS: Hold _______ during complete development through fetal stage until birth.
Function of Female RS: Produces ___________ hormones.
Function of Female RS: For _______ to reach ovum.
Function of Female RS: Canal for release of _________ & ______ canal.
Control organs of Reproductive System.
Steroidal sex hormones
First menstruation. System starts to undergo cyclic changes in structure or functional activity.
Menarche modifications controlled by
Cyclic changes become irregular and eventually disappear
There is slow involution of reproductive organs, including mammary glands.
Post menopausal period
Almond shape bodies. Storage of primary oocyte. Covered by _________, part of mesothelium. Consists cortex and medulla. Endocrine & Cytogenic properties.
Ovaries. Germinal epithelium.
Measurement of ovaries: _____ long, ____ wide & ____ thick.
3.5, 1.5 & 1
Endocrine property of Ovaries
Estrogen & Progesterone
Cytogenic property of Ovaries
Germinal epithelium LE is ________. Continuous with the _______. Overlies the tunica albuginea.
Simple cuboidal. Mesothelium.
Lining epithelium of the Mesothelium
Main cell of the ovarian follicle
Surrounding cells at the ovarian follicle
Thick layer of Dense connective tissue capsule. Responsible for the whitish color of the ovary.
Ovarian cortex: Outer. Filled with a highly cellular ________ and many __________ plus characteristic epithelial structure of ovary.
CT Stroma. Ovarian Follicles.
Ovarian medulla: most ________ part. Neurovascular structures. Contain ______ and blood vessels entering the organ through the hilum from mesenteries suspending the ovary.
Morphologically similar to Leydig cells in the Ovarian medulla
Early dev't of Ovary: Migrates from yolk sac to the gonadal primordia in first month of embryonic life. Divide and differentiate as ________. 2nd month embryo ________ and 5th month embryo ______.
Primordial germ cells. Oogonia. 600 000 oogonia. 7M.
Early dev't of Ovary: during ________. Oogonia begin to enter _______ of ___________ division but arrest after completing synapsis & recombination w/o progressing to later stages of meiosis.
3rd month. Prophase. 1st meiotic division.
Cells that are arrested during Prophase I which are surrounded by Follicular cells. Within ovarian follicle.
Flattened supportive cells
During _______, Oogonia- Primary oocyte within follicles. Primary oocyte undergoes atresia.
Slow continuous degenerative process
300 000 oocytes only reach full maturity when fertilization occurs.
Only _________ resumes meiosis w/ ovulation during each menstrual cycle.
Reproductive life of woman: _______ years. Only _____ oocytes are liberated from ovaries by ovulation. Others degenerate by atresia.
30-40 years. 450 oocytes.
Consist of an oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of epithelial cells. Surrounded by ________.
Ovarian follicles. Ovarian Stroma.
Follicles formed during fetal life. Consist of a primary oocyte enveloped by a single layer of flattened follicular cells. Found in the superficial areas of the cortex. Surrounded by basal lamina.
Spindle shaped cells, SM, Collagen fibers & Fibroblast.
Spherical cell w/ nucleus & mostly uncoiled chromosomes in 1st meiotic prophase
In Oocyte: ______ concentrated near nucleus.
In Oocyte: Includes numerous ________. Several ________. Extensive _________. Prominent nucleoli.
Mitochondria. Golgi complexes. ER cisternae.
Clear boundary between follicle and vascularized stroma.
Begins in puberty w/ release of ____ from pituitary. Involves in growth of oocyte. Proliferation & differentiation of stromal _______. Selection of either primordial & dominant follicle.
Folliculogenesis/Follicular growth. FSH. Fibroblasts.
In Folliculogenesis: undergo growth & recruitment
In Folliculogenesis: ovulates
In Folliculogenesis: Selection of complex _______ balances. Differences among follicles in FSH receptor numbers, ______ activity and estrogen synthesis.
Grows more rapidly during 1st part of follicular development. Prompted by ____. Max diameter ____.
Oocyte. FSH. 120um.
In Oocyte: This enlarges.
In Oocyte: become more numerous & uniformly distributed.
In Oocyte: more extensive.
In Oocyte: enlarge and move peripherally
Separated to stroma by a thin basal lamina
Undergo mitosis. Forms a simple cuboidal epithelium around the growing oocyte. Now known as ___________. Continue to proliferate forms Granulosa cells communicate through gap junctions.
Follicular cells. Unilaminar/Primary follicle.
Single layer of cuboidal epithelium
Lining Epithelium of Granulosa
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
Cells known as Granulosa cells. Follicle is multilayered primary follicle. Still surrounded by basement membrane. 2 layers of granulosa cells. Fine chromatin. Prominent nucleoli & cannot see nucleus.
Granulosa cells produces
Layer of extracellular material between oocyte & granulosa cells. Consists of 4 ___________ by oocyte. Thick layer of glycoprotein & proteoglycan.
Zona pellucida. Glycoprotein. Proteoglycan.
Zona pellucida components: bind proteins on the surfaces of the sperm. Induce acrosomal activation.
Zona pellucida is penetrated by ___________, microvilli of oocyte. Allows communication by cells between gap junctions.
Filopodia of follicular cells
Stratification of cuboidal granulosa cells
_______ grow with increasing oocyte size & numbers of granulosa cells and move deeper in the __________.
Follicles. Ovarian cortex.
Small spaces develop within granulosa layer. Cells secrete _____________ which accumulates in the spaces.
Follicular fluid/Liquor Folliculi
In zona granulosa: ________ reorganize in a larger cavity. ________ is for spaces or cavity formation. Follicles not known as _________.
Granulosa cells. Antrum. Secondary Antral follicles.
Contains hyaluronate, growth factors, plasminogen, fibrinogen and anticoding heparan SO4 & proteoglycan. And it joins to produce cavities known as _________.
Follicular fluid. Graafian follicle.
High concentration of steroids with binding protein
Progesterone, Androstenadione & Estrogens"PAE"
Part of Zona Granulosa: During reorganization, some cells form a small hilock, __________. Surrounds oocyte. Protrude into the antrum.
Around Zona Pellucida: cells immediately surround and linked to the oocyte. Accompany the oocyte when it leaves the ovary.
Stromal cells that immediately around the follicle
Follicular Theca/Theca Folliculi
Well vascularized endocrine tissue
More fibrous. Contains smooth muscle & fibroblast. Located at the outer part.
Steroid-producing endocrine w/ abundant smooth ER, mitochondria with tubular cristae . Numerous lipid droplets. Secrete androstenadione.
Cells of Theca Interna
Transform steroid to estradiol
Steroid hormone. Under the influence of _____. Synthesize aromatase. Absorbed in ________.
Androstenedione. FSH. Zona granulosa.
Wall like formation of granulosa cell
Antrum increases greatly in size, accumulating follicular fluid. Oocyte adheres to wall of the follicle through cumulus oophorus of granulosa cells granulosa cell layer becomes thinner. Very thick thecal layers. FSH starts to decrease, inc estrogen.
Degenerative process. Follicular cells & oocytes die & are disposed of by phagocytic cells. Exhibited by follicles at any stage of development involves apoptosis, detachment of granulosa cells, autolysis of oocyte and collapse of zona pellucida.
Invade degenerating follicle & phagocytose debris
Occupy the area of the follicle. Produce a collagen scar.
Primordial to mature follicle. Takes place from before borth until a few years after menopause. Most prominent just __________. Maternal hormones decline rapidly during both puberty and pregnancy.
1st meiotic division
Occurs midway through menstrual cycle (_____ day)
Whitish or translucent bulging developed from the large mature follicle bulging against the tunica albuginea. Compactiom of the tissue has blocked blood flow.
Begin to secrete progesterone and estrogen
Granulosa cells & Theca interna
Stimulus of Ovulation: ________ from anterior pituitary in response to rising levels of estrogen produced by the _____________.
LH surge. Mature dominant follicle
Stimulates hyaluronate & prostaglandin synthesis and fluid production. Within preovulatory follicle.
Protesterone, LH & FSH activate proteolytic enzymes (________ & _______) within and around the follicle.
Progesterone, LH & FSH weaken ________, ________ & _________. Which then leads to the ballooning and rupture of ovarian surface at ________.
Granulosa layer, Cumulus Oophorus & Tunica Albuginea. Stigma.
Cause contraction of theca externa smooth muscle through the opening @ stigma.
Prostaglandin causes the expulsion of
Cells of cumulus, Corona radiata, Oocyte & Follicular fluid " CCOF"
Before ovulation: _______ completes first meiotic division. Began and arrested at _________, nuclear and cytoplasmic division. Chromosomes divide into secondary and first polar body.
Nuclear is ________ and Cytoplasmic is ________.
Division of chromosome that is released from ovary. Retains almost all of the cytoplasm. Haploid.
Division of chromosome that is nonviable cell of a nucleus and a minimal amount of cytoplasm. Haploid.
First polar body
Formed after expulsion of first polar body. Oocyte begins ____ meiotic division. Arrests at _________.
Haploid. 2nd. Metaphase.
Adheres loosely to the ovary surface because of ________ which is rich coagulating follicular fluid.
Ovulated secondary oocyte. Hyaluronate.
Secondary oocyte if not fertilized within _______ degenerate.
A large temporary endocrine gland formed by the granulosa cells and theca interna change under influence of ____. Cells specialized for the production of steroid ________.
Corpus Luteum. LH. Progesterone.
Increase in size w/o dividing. Comprise 80% of parenchyma.
Large pale staining cells which secrete progesterone & estrogen. Lost features of protein-secreting cells. Expanded role in aromatase conversion.
Granulosa Lutein cells
Transient stage. Collapsing of blood vessels.
Corpus Hemorrhagicum (Corpus body)
Form the former theca interna. Secrete estrogen. Smaller than granulosa lutei cells. Stain darkly. Cytoplasmic ultrastructural features of steroid-synthesizing cells. Acred by LH. Aggregated in the folds of corpus luteum.
Theca Lutein cells
Produce large amounts of progesterone and androstenedione.
After LH surge, _________ programmed to secrete progesterone for _____ days.
Corpus Luteum. 10-12 days.
Withou LH stimulation & pregnancy, both cells cease steroid production & undergo _________. Tissue regresses.
Shedding of the part of the uterine mucosa
Menstruation brought about by decrease secretion of
Inhibits FSH release from pituitary
Maintain & Strengthen endometrium
Simultaneous with ovarian cycle
Persists for part of only one menstrual cycle. Remnants phagocytosed by ________. _______ produce a scar of dense of connective tissue.
Corpus Luteum of the menstrual cycle. Macrophage. Fibroblast.
Fibroblast produce a scar of dense connective tissue. Atretic/scar follicle.
Glycoprotein hormone. Produced by __________ in the implanting embryo. Actions similar to LH. Stimulate secretion of progesterone. Targets corpus luteum to maintain it. Promotes further growth of this endocrine gland.
HCG. Trophoblast cells.
Maintain uterine mucosa. Stimulate secretion on uterine mucosal glands for embryonic nutrition before placenta is functional.
Maintained by HCG for _______. Degenerates and replaced by an end part known as ________.
Corpus luteum in pregnancy. 4-5months. Corpus albicans.
Produces own progesterone and estrogen to maintain uterine mucosa
Ate genital ducts. Two mobile muscular tubes.
Length of the uterine tube
Funnel shaped end which opens to peritoneal cavity.
Fringe of finger like extensions. Oppose surface of ovary.
Longest & expanded area where fertilization normally occurs
Narrow region. Folds are almost lost. Near uterus.
Passes through the walls of uterus. Opens into inferior of the uterus.
Three layers of the ovary
Folded mucosa, Thick muscularis and Thin serosa
Layer of the uterine tube that is covered by visceral peritoneum w/ _________.
Thin serosa. Mesothelium.
Layer of the uterine tube that is interwoven circular & outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle
Mucosa of the uterine tube has numerous branching. Longitudinal folds are most prominent in _________. Becomes smaller in segments of tubes closer to uterus. Not present in _________ portion.m
Lining epithelium of the uterine tube
Simple columnar epithelium ciliated
Lamina propia of uterine tube
Epithelium of the uterine tube has ____ cells.
Uterine tube cells: Short. Lumen is towards uterus.
Uterine tube cells: darker staining. Slightly taller. Apical ends bulge into lumen.
Uterine tube cells: reserve cells of tubal epithelium. Shortest.
Bent toward the uterus. Cause movement of viscous liquid film. Covers epithelial surface. Contains glycoproteins & nutritive components produced by _________.
Cilia. Secretory cells.
Triggered by ________. Cilia elongates.
Both Tubal cells undergo hypertrophy during
Follicular growth phase
Tubal cells both undergo atrophy during
Late Luteal phase
Moves close to ovary. Partially covers ovarian surface. Favors transport of ovulated secondary oocyte.
_______ cause uterine tube muscular contraction. _______ for the ciliary activity. Oocyte then enters ________ and moves to ampulla.
Fimbrae. Epithelium. Infundibulum.
Maximum viability of oocyte
Sperm release enzyme for it to penetrate.
Occurring in ampulla. Fusion of haploid sperm & egg. Reconstitution of diploid number of chromosomes. Triggers oocyte to complete 2nd meiotic division.
Formation of ovum. 2nd polar body.
2nd meiotic division
Still present but gradually detaches. Forms a diploid cell: zygote. Which is transported to uterus.
Fertilization transport process occurs normally in women w/ ____________.
Immotile cilia syndrome
If uterine tube is blocked: ________ cannot reach uterus. Implants itself in oviduct wall. __________ acts as uterine endometrium. Forms _______.
Embryo. LP. Decidual cells.
Implantation of the embryo outside the uterus
Pear shaped. Thick muscular walls. Cell mass, inner is fetus and oiter is trophoblast. Morula enters and implants here.
Uterine part: largest. Entered by oviducts.
Uterine part: superior area between the tubes. Curved area.
Uterine part: narrowed part. Lumen. Internal OS. Only part to go back to its pre pregnant form.
Uterine part: end. A lower cylindrical structure. Lumen, cervical canal.
Three layers of the uterus
Endometrium, Myometrium & Perimetrium
Tunica serosa. Outer CT layer. Continuous w/ ligaments. Adventitia in some areas. Largely a serosa covered by a ________.
Lining epithelium of perimetrium
Simple squamous epithelium
Thick tunic of highly vascular smooth muscle. Thickest. Composed of bundles of smooth muscle fibers seprated by CT & many blood vessels. Form 4 interwoven, poorly defined layers.
Four interwoven layers of myometrium: composed mainly of fibers parallel to the long axis of the organ.
1st & 4th
Four interwoven layers of myometrium: circularly disposed. Contains large blood vessels.
Myometrium: during pregnancy undergoes both _______ & _______. 8M cells actively synthesize _______ that strengthens uterine wall.
Hypertrophy & Hyperplasia. Collagen.
Myometrium: After pregnancy, ___ shrink, undergo ______. Removal of unneeded collagen.
Layer of myometrium: circular SM
Layer of myometrium: blood supply is concentrated. Longitudinal & Circular SM.
Layer of myometrium: Longitudinal SM only
Tunica mucosa where zygote is implanted. Lamina propia contains ______ collagen fibers, abundant fibroblast and ground substance. LE is _________ which has both ciliated secretory cells which forms the uterine glands which penetrate its full thickness.
Endometrium. Type III Collagen. Simple columnar.
2 zones of endometrium: unchanged on menstrual cycle. Adjacent to myometrium. Contains highly cellular LP & deep basal ends of uterine glands.
2 zones of endometrium: changes. Superficial. Contains more spongy and less cellular LP. Richer in ground substances.
In menstrual cycle, control growth & differentiation of epithelial cells & associated CT.
Progesterone & Estrogen
Menstrual cycle duration average
Day when menstrual bleeding appears
Menstrual period lasts _______ on average.
Fertilization of oocyte & embryonic implantation does not occur. Corpus luteum regresses. Self limiting.
For repair of endometrium
In Menstrual Cycle, Circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen begins to decrease ______ days after ovulation. Leads to _______.
8-10 days. Menstruation.
Drop off in Progesterone produces: _______ of muscle contraction i. Small spiral arteries of Functional layer.
Drop off in Progesterone produces: Increase synthesis by _______ of prostaglandin.
Produces strong vasoconstriction. Local hypoxia.
Hypoxic cells. Increase vascular permeability immigration of leukocytes.
Leukocytes release ________ & _____. Degrades basement membrane & ECM components.
Collagenas. Matrix Metalloproteins (MMP)
Not dependent on progesterone sensitive spiral arteries, basal Layer of ________.
Basement membrane. Endometrium.
Major portions of Functional layer including
Surface epithelium, Stroma & Blood-filled lacuna "SSB"
Blood filled lacuna detaches from ________. Slough away as _________. Menses.
Endometrium. Menstrual flow.
Limits blood loss
At end of menstrual phase: Endometrium reduced to a _____ layer. Ready to begin a new cycle. Cells begin dividing to reconstitute _______.
3 line endometrium. Variable in length, ______ days average. Uterine mucosa is _____.
Proliferative phase. 8-10 days. Thin.
Beginning. Rapid growth of ovarian follicles undergoing transition from preantral to antral follicles. Developed _________ which has follicles actively secreting estrogens.
Follicular/Estrogenic phase. Theca interna.
Functional layer of the uterus during follicular phase
Act on endometrium. Induce cell proliferation. Reconstitute functional layer lost during menstruation.
Endometrial lining of the uterus in proliferative phase
Straight tubules with narrow nearly empty lumens.
Cells of the uterine glands in proliferative phase: accumulate _______ of RER & larger golgi complexes in preparation for secretory activity.
Lengthens as functional layer is reestablished and grows.
At the end of the proliferative phase, endometrium is _______ thick.
Lining epithelium of the uterus during proliferative phase
Pseudostratified Columnar Ciliated
Lamina propia of the endometrium during proliferative phase contains ____________ which are simple tubular glands.
Uterine layer during Proliferative Phase: stroma and cells are more dense
Uterine layer during Proliferative Phase: cells are loosely arranged. Less compact & dense.
Uterine layer during Proliferative Phase: contains blood vessels
Simultaneous with luteal phase. Maximal thickness. Starts as a result of _______ secreted by corpus luteum.
Secretory phase. Progesterone.
Morphology of the endometrium during the secretory phase
Simple branched tubular glands
Stimulates epithelial cells of uterine glands to accumulate glycogen. Cell undergo _______ secretion. Glandular lumen ______.
Progesterone. Apocrine. Dilates.
In Secretory phase: glands become highly ______. Superficial microvasculature includes thin-walled, ___________.
Coiled. Blood filled lacuna.
In Secretory phase: _________ reaches maximum thickness. Accumulation of secretions. Edema in stroma. If ________ had taken place, secretory activity are optimal for embryo implantation and nutrition.
In Secretory phase: major source for embryogenic nutrition before and during implantation.
Uterine gland secretion
In Secretory phase: it inhibits strong contractions of the myometrium that might interfere with implantation.
Viable cells of endometrium, displaced during menstruation, reflux into one or both uterine tubes, move upward and grow outside the uterus rather than undergoing vaginal discharge.
Endometrius is under the influence of _______. _______ function grows and degenerates monthly without effective removal. Leads to pain, inflammation, cyst, adhesions, scar and infertility.
Embryonic implantation mainly of
Decidua & Placenta
Embryonic implantation: ________ is fertilized in the ampulla of uterine tube. Resulting _______ undergoes mitotic cleavages as it is moved passively toward the uterus.
Embryonic implantation: Embryo remains within the covering of the
Embryonic implantation: becomes smaller with each division . Cells that result from segmentation of zygote.
Embryonic implantation: compact aggregate of blastomeres
Embryonic implantation: embryo reaches uterus ______ days after fertilization. Loses zona pellucida.
Embryonic implantation: a cavity. Develops in center of morula.
Embryonic implantation: peripheral arrangement of blastomeres around the cavity
Embryonic implantation: collection of cells inside the trophoblast
Embryoblast/Inner cell mass
Blastocyst attaches to the surface epithelial cells of the late secretory phase endometrium.
In Implantation: proteolytic penetration of blastocyst from epithelium into underlying stroma occurs in ______. Driven by ______. Cells of embryoblast rearrange as two new cavities.
3 days. Trophoblast.
In Implantation: makes contact with epiblast
In Implantation: makes contact with hypoblast
Parts of the embryo develop from this. Composed of two cavities which are epiblast and hypoblast.
Bilaminar Embryonic disc
In Implantation: trophoblast differentiates to these which contributes to embryonic portion of placenta.
Cytotrophoblast & Syncytiotrophoblast
More superficial. An invasive, multinucleated mass.
In Implantation: ___ day after ovulation, embryo is totally implanted in the endometrium. Nutrient derived from blood & secretion.
In Implantation: Prevent adverse reaction of uterus to the implanted embryo
What releases cytokines (anti inflammatory)
In Implantation: goes through profound changes
In Implantation: _______ enlarged & polygonal. More active in protein synthesis. Now called as ________.
Fibroblast. Decidual cells.
In Implantation: endometrium now referred as
Layer of Decidua: between embryo and myometrium
Layer of Decidua: between embryo and lumen of the uterus
Layer of Decidua: remainder of the decidua
Site of nutrient, waste, 02 & C02 exchanges between choriona nd maternal part. Contains tissues from both individual.
Embryonic part derived from former trophoblast
From decidua basalis
Chorion and maternal part form this. Project into blood filled lacuna of decidua. Provides larger surface for nutrient and O2 absorption. Invaded by __________. Continuous with wide capillaries by end of ______ of pregnancy. Suspended in the pools of maternal blood. Have enormous area for metabolic exchange.
Chorionic villi. Embryonic mesenchyme. 3rd week.
In placenta: diffusion occurs in
Trophoblast layer, CT of villi & Capillary endothelium "TCC"
An endocrine organ which produces HCG, chorionic thyrotropin, chorionic corticotropin, estrogen and progesterone.
Initial attachment of embryo occurs on _________ walls of embryo. Sometimes attaches to _______. _______ between fetus and vagina.
Ventral/dorsal. Internal OS. Placenta.
Obstruction in the passage of fetus @ parturition
CS delivery & Placenta previa
Embryo sometimes attaches to epithelium of _________. Zygote enters ___________ attaches to peritoneum and develops.
Uterine tube. Abdominal cavity.
Lower and more cylindrical part of the uterus. Differ in histologic structure.
Lining epithelium of uterine cervix
Simple columnar epithelium
Lamina propia of uterine cervix
Region wherein endocervical canal opens into the vagina. Bulges into upper vagina. Covered by __________.
External. Exocervical mucosa.
Lining epithelium of exocervical mucosa
Stratified squamous epithelium
Simple columnar undergoes abrupt transition to stratified squamous
Transformation zone - Distinct zone
Little SM. Consist mainly of DCT.
Middle layer of uterine cervix
In uterine cervix: mucosa contains _________ which produces mucus. Does not _______ during menstruation.
Cervical glands. Desquamate.
In uterine cervix: time of ovulation, _______ secretions are maximal, watery and facilitate movement through uterus by sperm.
In uterine cervix: during _________. Increase in ________. Mucous secretion becomes viscous and hinder passage of both sperm and microorganisms into the body of uterus.
Luteal phase. Progesterone.
In uterine cervix: during pregnancy, _________ proliferate. Secrete abundant highly viscous mucus. Forms a ______ in endocervical canal.
Cervical glands. Plug.
Derived from stratified squamous epithelium
Wall lacks glands. 3 layers are muscular layer, mucosa and adventitia.
Vagina is covered by ________ which is produced by ________.
Mucus. Uterine cervix.
Small glands. Provides additional lubricating mucus during intercourse. Opens into vestibule.
Space enclosed within labia minora. Also contains vaginal orifice, urethra and ante erectile function of clitoris. Covered by __________.
Vestibule. External genitalia.
Lining epithelium of external genitalia
Epithelium of external genitalia contains small amount of _______. Does not undergo _______. When stimulated by ________, cells synthesize and accumulate ________.
Keratohyaline. Keratinization. Estrogen. Glycogen.
Bacteria metabolize glycogen to Lactic acid. Low pH in vagina. Protection against pathogenic microorganism.
Lamina propia of the vagina: rich in _________ & numerous narrow ________ projecting into epithelial cell layer.
Elastic fibers. Papillae.
CT of vagina: contains ________ & ________.
Lymphocytes and Neutrophils.
Mucosa of the vagina has few
Sensory nerve endings
Muscular layer of the vagina composed of two indistinct lauers of SM. _______ bundle next to mucosa. Thicker _______ bundle next to adventitial layer.
Makes vaginal wall strong and elastic
Outer layer contains extensive venous plexus, lymphatics and nerves.
DCT of Adventitia
Develop embryologically as invaginations of surface ________ along 2 ventral lines, the milk lines, from axilla to groin.
Mammary gland. Ectoderm.
Mammary gland consists of lobes of ____________ type in whichf unction is to secrete milk.
Breast dev't during Puberty: only composition of male and female mammary gland before puberty. Near the nipple. Small branching duct emerges.
Breast dev't during Puberty: Increase in circulating estrogen, breast ______ in size, _______ accumulation in CT, Increase growth and branching of duct system and _______ enlarges.
Increase. Adipocyte. Nipple.
Breast dev't during Puberty: lobules contained in the parenchymal structure of non pregnant adult women's breast. Embedded in ___________ connective tissue. ________ CT separates the lobes.
Terminal Duct Lobular Units. Loose vascular. Dense cellular.
Breast dev't during Puberty: Lining epithelium of Lactiferous sinus
Breast dev't during Puberty: Lining epithelium of Lactiferous & Terminal ducts
Simple cuboidal covered by loosely packed myoepithelial cells
Skin covering the nipple. Thin skin with _______ gland. Epithelium continuous w/ lactiferous sinus. Contains more melanin. Skin is supplied with sensory nerve ending.
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Estrogen, Progesterone, Prolactin & HPL. Results in proliferation of secretory alveoli at ends of _________.
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: cuboidal epithelium with ________ myoepithelial cells between secretory cells and basal lamina.
Shape of alveoli
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: grow & develop during pregnancy in preparation for lactation. _______ becomes less prominent.
Alveoli & ducts. Stroma.
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: _____ in lobule is infiltrated in lymphocytes and _______.
LCT. Plasma cells.
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Plasma cells are more numerous and produce
Immunoglobulins (secretory IgA)
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: accumulates late pregnancy. Causes dilatation of glandular alveoli and ducts. Rich in protein, ______ and electrolytes.
Colostrum. Vit. A.
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: colostrum is produced under influence of _________.
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Igs produced by ________ are transferred to colostrum. ________ immunity ( _______ ) Breastfeeding.
Plasma cells. Passive. Acquired.
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: type of secretion. Proteins- golgi- packaged into secreting vesicles- exocytosis.
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: type of secretion. Lipid droplets- pass out the cells- lumen.
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Proteins in human milk (____%) digested as source of AA by infant.
1.5%. Caseins, B lactoglobulin & Gamma lactoglobulin.
Caseins aggregate as
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Lipids (____%)
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Sugar. Lactose (___%) major source of energy. Synthesize in _______. Draws water. Adds to milk volume.
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Causes contraction of Lactiferous sinuses and ducts & myoepithelial cells of alveoli.
Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: initiated by negative emotion, frustration, anxiety and anger.
Milk ejection reflex
Postlactational Regression in MG: when breastfeeding stops, secretory ______ degenerates. Apoptosis. Sloughing of whole cells. Dead cells and debris removed by ________.
Postlactational Regression in MG: _____ system inactivates.