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Flashcards in Repro: Female Deck (293)
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Consist of two ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina and external genitalia.

Female Reproductive System

1

Function of Female RS: produce female _______. (________)

Gametes. Oocytes.

2

Function of Female RS: Provide environment for ________.

Fertilization

3

Function of Female RS: Hold _______ during complete development through fetal stage until birth.

Embryo

4

Function of Female RS: Produces ___________ hormones.

Steroidal sex

5

Function of Female RS: For _______ to reach ovum.

Sperm

6

Function of Female RS: Canal for release of _________ & ______ canal.

Menstruation. Birth.

7

Control organs of Reproductive System.

Steroidal sex hormones

8

First menstruation. System starts to undergo cyclic changes in structure or functional activity.

Menarche

9

Menarche modifications controlled by

Neuronal hormones

10

Cyclic changes become irregular and eventually disappear

Menopause

11

There is slow involution of reproductive organs, including mammary glands.

Post menopausal period

12

Almond shape bodies. Storage of primary oocyte. Covered by _________, part of mesothelium. Consists cortex and medulla. Endocrine & Cytogenic properties.

Ovaries. Germinal epithelium.

13

Measurement of ovaries: _____ long, ____ wide & ____ thick.

3.5, 1.5 & 1

14

Endocrine property of Ovaries

Estrogen & Progesterone

15

Cytogenic property of Ovaries

Oocytes

16

Germinal epithelium LE is ________. Continuous with the _______. Overlies the tunica albuginea.

Simple cuboidal. Mesothelium.

17

Lining epithelium of the Mesothelium

Simple squamous

18

Main cell of the ovarian follicle

Oocyte

19

Surrounding cells at the ovarian follicle

Follicular cell

20

Thick layer of Dense connective tissue capsule. Responsible for the whitish color of the ovary.

Tunica Albuginea

21

Ovarian cortex: Outer. Filled with a highly cellular ________ and many __________ plus characteristic epithelial structure of ovary.

CT Stroma. Ovarian Follicles.

22

Ovarian medulla: most ________ part. Neurovascular structures. Contain ______ and blood vessels entering the organ through the hilum from mesenteries suspending the ovary.

Internal. LC.

23

Morphologically similar to Leydig cells in the Ovarian medulla

Hilar cells

24

Early dev't of Ovary: Migrates from yolk sac to the gonadal primordia in first month of embryonic life. Divide and differentiate as ________. 2nd month embryo ________ and 5th month embryo ______.

Primordial germ cells. Oogonia. 600 000 oogonia. 7M.

25

Early dev't of Ovary: during ________. Oogonia begin to enter _______ of ___________ division but arrest after completing synapsis & recombination w/o progressing to later stages of meiosis.

3rd month. Prophase. 1st meiotic division.

26

Cells that are arrested during Prophase I which are surrounded by Follicular cells. Within ovarian follicle.

Primary Oocytes

27

Flattened supportive cells

Follicular cells

28

During _______, Oogonia- Primary oocyte within follicles. Primary oocyte undergoes atresia.

7th month

29

Slow continuous degenerative process

Atresia

30

300 000 oocytes only reach full maturity when fertilization occurs.

Puberty

31

Only _________ resumes meiosis w/ ovulation during each menstrual cycle.

One oocyte

32

Reproductive life of woman: _______ years. Only _____ oocytes are liberated from ovaries by ovulation. Others degenerate by atresia.

30-40 years. 450 oocytes.

33

Consist of an oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of epithelial cells. Surrounded by ________.

Ovarian follicles. Ovarian Stroma.

34

Follicles formed during fetal life. Consist of a primary oocyte enveloped by a single layer of flattened follicular cells. Found in the superficial areas of the cortex. Surrounded by basal lamina.

Primordial follicles

35

Spindle shaped cells, SM, Collagen fibers & Fibroblast.

Ovarian stroma

36

Spherical cell w/ nucleus & mostly uncoiled chromosomes in 1st meiotic prophase

Oocyte

37

In Oocyte: ______ concentrated near nucleus.

Organelles

38

In Oocyte: Includes numerous ________. Several ________. Extensive _________. Prominent nucleoli.

Mitochondria. Golgi complexes. ER cisternae.

39

Clear boundary between follicle and vascularized stroma.

Basal Lamina

40

Begins in puberty w/ release of ____ from pituitary. Involves in growth of oocyte. Proliferation & differentiation of stromal _______. Selection of either primordial & dominant follicle.

Folliculogenesis/Follicular growth. FSH. Fibroblasts.

41

In Folliculogenesis: undergo growth & recruitment

Primordial follicles

42

In Folliculogenesis: ovulates

Dominant follicle

43

In Folliculogenesis: Selection of complex _______ balances. Differences among follicles in FSH receptor numbers, ______ activity and estrogen synthesis.

Hormonal. Aromatase.

44

Grows more rapidly during 1st part of follicular development. Prompted by ____. Max diameter ____.

Oocyte. FSH. 120um.

45

In Oocyte: This enlarges.

Nucleus

46

In Oocyte: become more numerous & uniformly distributed.

Mitochondria

47

In Oocyte: more extensive.

ER

48

In Oocyte: enlarge and move peripherally

Golgi complexes

49

Separated to stroma by a thin basal lamina

Granulosa cell

50

Undergo mitosis. Forms a simple cuboidal epithelium around the growing oocyte. Now known as ___________. Continue to proliferate forms Granulosa cells communicate through gap junctions.

Follicular cells. Unilaminar/Primary follicle.

51

Single layer of cuboidal epithelium

Primary follicle

52

Lining Epithelium of Granulosa

Stratified Columnar Epithelium

53

Cells known as Granulosa cells. Follicle is multilayered primary follicle. Still surrounded by basement membrane. 2 layers of granulosa cells. Fine chromatin. Prominent nucleoli & cannot see nucleus.

Growing/Multilaminar follicle

54

Granulosa cells produces

Estrogen

55

Layer of extracellular material between oocyte & granulosa cells. Consists of 4 ___________ by oocyte. Thick layer of glycoprotein & proteoglycan.

Zona pellucida. Glycoprotein. Proteoglycan.

56

Zona pellucida components: bind proteins on the surfaces of the sperm. Induce acrosomal activation.

ZP 1-4

57

Zona pellucida is penetrated by ___________, microvilli of oocyte. Allows communication by cells between gap junctions.

Filopodia of follicular cells

58

Stratification of cuboidal granulosa cells

Zona Granulosa

59

_______ grow with increasing oocyte size & numbers of granulosa cells and move deeper in the __________.

Follicles. Ovarian cortex.

60

Small spaces develop within granulosa layer. Cells secrete _____________ which accumulates in the spaces.

Follicular fluid/Liquor Folliculi

61

In zona granulosa: ________ reorganize in a larger cavity. ________ is for spaces or cavity formation. Follicles not known as _________.

Granulosa cells. Antrum. Secondary Antral follicles.

62

Contains hyaluronate, growth factors, plasminogen, fibrinogen and anticoding heparan SO4 & proteoglycan. And it joins to produce cavities known as _________.

Follicular fluid. Graafian follicle.

63

High concentration of steroids with binding protein

Progesterone, Androstenadione & Estrogens"PAE"

64

Part of Zona Granulosa: During reorganization, some cells form a small hilock, __________. Surrounds oocyte. Protrude into the antrum.

Cumulus oophorus

65

Around Zona Pellucida: cells immediately surround and linked to the oocyte. Accompany the oocyte when it leaves the ovary.

Corona radiata

66

Stromal cells that immediately around the follicle

Follicular Theca/Theca Folliculi

67

Well vascularized endocrine tissue

Theca interna

68

More fibrous. Contains smooth muscle & fibroblast. Located at the outer part.

Theca externa

69

Steroid-producing endocrine w/ abundant smooth ER, mitochondria with tubular cristae . Numerous lipid droplets. Secrete androstenadione.

Cells of Theca Interna

70

Transform steroid to estradiol

Aromatase

71

Steroid hormone. Under the influence of _____. Synthesize aromatase. Absorbed in ________.

Androstenedione. FSH. Zona granulosa.

72

Wall like formation of granulosa cell

Granulosalimitans externa

73

Antrum increases greatly in size, accumulating follicular fluid. Oocyte adheres to wall of the follicle through cumulus oophorus of granulosa cells granulosa cell layer becomes thinner. Very thick thecal layers. FSH starts to decrease, inc estrogen.

Mature/Preovulatory/Graafian Follicle

74

Degenerative process. Follicular cells & oocytes die & are disposed of by phagocytic cells. Exhibited by follicles at any stage of development involves apoptosis, detachment of granulosa cells, autolysis of oocyte and collapse of zona pellucida.

Follicular Atresia

75

Invade degenerating follicle & phagocytose debris

Macrophage

76

Occupy the area of the follicle. Produce a collagen scar.

Fibroblast

77

Primordial to mature follicle. Takes place from before borth until a few years after menopause. Most prominent just __________. Maternal hormones decline rapidly during both puberty and pregnancy.

1st meiotic division

78

Occurs midway through menstrual cycle (_____ day)

Ovulation. 14th

79

Whitish or translucent bulging developed from the large mature follicle bulging against the tunica albuginea. Compactiom of the tissue has blocked blood flow.

Stigma

80

Begin to secrete progesterone and estrogen

Granulosa cells & Theca interna

81

Stimulus of Ovulation: ________ from anterior pituitary in response to rising levels of estrogen produced by the _____________.

LH surge. Mature dominant follicle

82

Stimulates hyaluronate & prostaglandin synthesis and fluid production. Within preovulatory follicle.

LH

83

Protesterone, LH & FSH activate proteolytic enzymes (________ & _______) within and around the follicle.

Plasmin. Collagenases.

84

Progesterone, LH & FSH weaken ________, ________ & _________. Which then leads to the ballooning and rupture of ovarian surface at ________.

Granulosa layer, Cumulus Oophorus & Tunica Albuginea. Stigma.

85

Cause contraction of theca externa smooth muscle through the opening @ stigma.

Prostaglandin

86

Prostaglandin causes the expulsion of

Cells of cumulus, Corona radiata, Oocyte & Follicular fluid " CCOF"

87

Before ovulation: _______ completes first meiotic division. Began and arrested at _________, nuclear and cytoplasmic division. Chromosomes divide into secondary and first polar body.

Oocyte. Prophase.

88

Nuclear is ________ and Cytoplasmic is ________.

Equal. Unequal.

89

Division of chromosome that is released from ovary. Retains almost all of the cytoplasm. Haploid.

Secondary oocyte

90

Division of chromosome that is nonviable cell of a nucleus and a minimal amount of cytoplasm. Haploid.

First polar body

91

Formed after expulsion of first polar body. Oocyte begins ____ meiotic division. Arrests at _________.

Haploid. 2nd. Metaphase.

92

Adheres loosely to the ovary surface because of ________ which is rich coagulating follicular fluid.

Ovulated secondary oocyte. Hyaluronate.

93

Secondary oocyte if not fertilized within _______ degenerate.

24th day

94

A large temporary endocrine gland formed by the granulosa cells and theca interna change under influence of ____. Cells specialized for the production of steroid ________.

Corpus Luteum. LH. Progesterone.

95

Increase in size w/o dividing. Comprise 80% of parenchyma.

Granulosa cells

96

Large pale staining cells which secrete progesterone & estrogen. Lost features of protein-secreting cells. Expanded role in aromatase conversion.

Granulosa Lutein cells

97

Transient stage. Collapsing of blood vessels.

Corpus Hemorrhagicum (Corpus body)

98

Form the former theca interna. Secrete estrogen. Smaller than granulosa lutei cells. Stain darkly. Cytoplasmic ultrastructural features of steroid-synthesizing cells. Acred by LH. Aggregated in the folds of corpus luteum.

Theca Lutein cells

99

Produce large amounts of progesterone and androstenedione.

LH

100

After LH surge, _________ programmed to secrete progesterone for _____ days.

Corpus Luteum. 10-12 days.

101

Withou LH stimulation & pregnancy, both cells cease steroid production & undergo _________. Tissue regresses.

Apoptosis

102

Shedding of the part of the uterine mucosa

Menstruation

103

Menstruation brought about by decrease secretion of

Progesterone

104

Inhibits FSH release from pituitary

Estrogen

105

Produce estrogen

Corpus luteum

106

Maintain & Strengthen endometrium

Progesterone

107

Simultaneous with ovarian cycle

Endometrial cycle

108

Persists for part of only one menstrual cycle. Remnants phagocytosed by ________. _______ produce a scar of dense of connective tissue.

Corpus Luteum of the menstrual cycle. Macrophage. Fibroblast.

109

Fibroblast produce a scar of dense connective tissue. Atretic/scar follicle.

Corpus Albicans

110

Glycoprotein hormone. Produced by __________ in the implanting embryo. Actions similar to LH. Stimulate secretion of progesterone. Targets corpus luteum to maintain it. Promotes further growth of this endocrine gland.

HCG. Trophoblast cells.

111

Maintain uterine mucosa. Stimulate secretion on uterine mucosal glands for embryonic nutrition before placenta is functional.

Progesterone

112

Maintained by HCG for _______. Degenerates and replaced by an end part known as ________.

Corpus luteum in pregnancy. 4-5months. Corpus albicans.

113

Produces own progesterone and estrogen to maintain uterine mucosa

Placenta

114

Ate genital ducts. Two mobile muscular tubes.

Uterine/Oviducts/Fallopian tubes

115

Length of the uterine tube

12cm

116

Funnel shaped end which opens to peritoneal cavity.

Infundibulum

117

Fringe of finger like extensions. Oppose surface of ovary.

Fimbrae

118

Longest & expanded area where fertilization normally occurs

Ampulla

119

Narrow region. Folds are almost lost. Near uterus.

Isthmus

120

Passes through the walls of uterus. Opens into inferior of the uterus.

Interstitial/Uterine/Intramural part

121

Completed oogenesis

Mature/Defitive oocyte

122

Three layers of the ovary

Folded mucosa, Thick muscularis and Thin serosa

123

Layer of the uterine tube that is covered by visceral peritoneum w/ _________.

Thin serosa. Mesothelium.

124

Layer of the uterine tube that is interwoven circular & outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle

Thick muscularis

125

Mucosa of the uterine tube has numerous branching. Longitudinal folds are most prominent in _________. Becomes smaller in segments of tubes closer to uterus. Not present in _________ portion.m

Ampulla. Intramural.

126

Lining epithelium of the uterine tube

Simple columnar epithelium ciliated

127

Lamina propia of uterine tube

LCT

128

Epithelium of the uterine tube has ____ cells.

Three

129

Uterine tube cells: Short. Lumen is towards uterus.

Ciliated cells

130

Uterine tube cells: darker staining. Slightly taller. Apical ends bulge into lumen.

Peg/Secretory cells

131

Uterine tube cells: reserve cells of tubal epithelium. Shortest.

Intercalated cells

132

Bent toward the uterus. Cause movement of viscous liquid film. Covers epithelial surface. Contains glycoproteins & nutritive components produced by _________.

Cilia. Secretory cells.

133

Triggered by ________. Cilia elongates.

Estrogen

134

Both Tubal cells undergo hypertrophy during

Follicular growth phase

135

Tubal cells both undergo atrophy during

Late Luteal phase

136

Moves close to ovary. Partially covers ovarian surface. Favors transport of ovulated secondary oocyte.

Infundibulum

137

_______ cause uterine tube muscular contraction. _______ for the ciliary activity. Oocyte then enters ________ and moves to ampulla.

Fimbrae. Epithelium. Infundibulum.

138

Maximum viability of oocyte

24 hours

139

Sperm activation

Capacitation

140

Sperm release enzyme for it to penetrate.

Acrosome reaction

141

Occurring in ampulla. Fusion of haploid sperm & egg. Reconstitution of diploid number of chromosomes. Triggers oocyte to complete 2nd meiotic division.

Fertilization.

142

Formation of ovum. 2nd polar body.

2nd meiotic division

143

Still present but gradually detaches. Forms a diploid cell: zygote. Which is transported to uterus.

Corona radiata

144

Fertilization transport process occurs normally in women w/ ____________.

Immotile cilia syndrome

145

If uterine tube is blocked: ________ cannot reach uterus. Implants itself in oviduct wall. __________ acts as uterine endometrium. Forms _______.

Embryo. LP. Decidual cells.

146

Implantation of the embryo outside the uterus

Ectopic pregnancy

147

Pear shaped. Thick muscular walls. Cell mass, inner is fetus and oiter is trophoblast. Morula enters and implants here.

Uterus

148

Uterine part: largest. Entered by oviducts.

Body

149

Uterine part: superior area between the tubes. Curved area.

Fundus

150

Uterine part: narrowed part. Lumen. Internal OS. Only part to go back to its pre pregnant form.

Isthmus

151

Uterine part: end. A lower cylindrical structure. Lumen, cervical canal.

Cervix

152

Three layers of the uterus

Endometrium, Myometrium & Perimetrium

153

Tunica serosa. Outer CT layer. Continuous w/ ligaments. Adventitia in some areas. Largely a serosa covered by a ________.

Perimetrium. Mesothelium.

154

Lining epithelium of perimetrium

Simple squamous epithelium

155

Thick tunic of highly vascular smooth muscle. Thickest. Composed of bundles of smooth muscle fibers seprated by CT & many blood vessels. Form 4 interwoven, poorly defined layers.

Myometrium

156

Four interwoven layers of myometrium: composed mainly of fibers parallel to the long axis of the organ.

1st & 4th

157

Four interwoven layers of myometrium: circularly disposed. Contains large blood vessels.

Middle layers

158

Myometrium: during pregnancy undergoes both _______ & _______. 8M cells actively synthesize _______ that strengthens uterine wall.

Hypertrophy & Hyperplasia. Collagen.

159

Myometrium: After pregnancy, ___ shrink, undergo ______. Removal of unneeded collagen.

SM. Apoptosis.

160

Layer of myometrium: circular SM

Stratum Supravasculare

161

Layer of myometrium: blood supply is concentrated. Longitudinal & Circular SM.

Stratum Vasculare

162

Layer of myometrium: Longitudinal SM only

Stratum Subvasculare

163

Tunica mucosa where zygote is implanted. Lamina propia contains ______ collagen fibers, abundant fibroblast and ground substance. LE is _________ which has both ciliated secretory cells which forms the uterine glands which penetrate its full thickness.

Endometrium. Type III Collagen. Simple columnar.

164

2 zones of endometrium: unchanged on menstrual cycle. Adjacent to myometrium. Contains highly cellular LP & deep basal ends of uterine glands.

Basal layer

165

2 zones of endometrium: changes. Superficial. Contains more spongy and less cellular LP. Richer in ground substances.

Functional layer

166

In menstrual cycle, control growth & differentiation of epithelial cells & associated CT.

Progesterone & Estrogen

167

Menstrual cycle duration average

28 days

168

Day when menstrual bleeding appears

Day one

169

Menstrual period lasts _______ on average.

3-4 days

170

Fertilization of oocyte & embryonic implantation does not occur. Corpus luteum regresses. Self limiting.

Menstrual period

171

For repair of endometrium

Estrogen

172

In Menstrual Cycle, Circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen begins to decrease ______ days after ovulation. Leads to _______.

8-10 days. Menstruation.

173

Drop off in Progesterone produces: _______ of muscle contraction i. Small spiral arteries of Functional layer.

Spasm

174

Drop off in Progesterone produces: Increase synthesis by _______ of prostaglandin.

Arterial cells

175

Produces strong vasoconstriction. Local hypoxia.

Prostaglandin

176

Hypoxic cells. Increase vascular permeability immigration of leukocytes.

Cytokines

177

Leukocytes release ________ & _____. Degrades basement membrane & ECM components.

Collagenas. Matrix Metalloproteins (MMP)

178

Not dependent on progesterone sensitive spiral arteries, basal Layer of ________.

Basement membrane. Endometrium.

179

Major portions of Functional layer including

Surface epithelium, Stroma & Blood-filled lacuna "SSB"

180

Blood filled lacuna detaches from ________. Slough away as _________. Menses.

Endometrium. Menstrual flow.

181

Limits blood loss

Arterial constriction

182

At end of menstrual phase: Endometrium reduced to a _____ layer. Ready to begin a new cycle. Cells begin dividing to reconstitute _______.

Thin. Mucosa.

183

3 line endometrium. Variable in length, ______ days average. Uterine mucosa is _____.

Proliferative phase. 8-10 days. Thin.

184

Beginning. Rapid growth of ovarian follicles undergoing transition from preantral to antral follicles. Developed _________ which has follicles actively secreting estrogens.

Follicular/Estrogenic phase. Theca interna.

185

Functional layer of the uterus during follicular phase

Stratum functionalis

186

Act on endometrium. Induce cell proliferation. Reconstitute functional layer lost during menstruation.

Estrogen

187

Endometrial lining of the uterus in proliferative phase

Simple columnar

188

Straight tubules with narrow nearly empty lumens.

Uterine glands

189

Cells of the uterine glands in proliferative phase: accumulate _______ of RER & larger golgi complexes in preparation for secretory activity.

Cisternae

190

Lengthens as functional layer is reestablished and grows.

Spiral arteries

191

At the end of the proliferative phase, endometrium is _______ thick.

2-3 mm

192

Lining epithelium of the uterus during proliferative phase

Pseudostratified Columnar Ciliated

193

Lamina propia of the endometrium during proliferative phase contains ____________ which are simple tubular glands.

Endometrial glands

194

Uterine layer during Proliferative Phase: stroma and cells are more dense

Zona compacta

195

Uterine layer during Proliferative Phase: cells are loosely arranged. Less compact & dense.

Stratum spongiosa

196

Uterine layer during Proliferative Phase: contains blood vessels

Stratum basale

197

Simultaneous with luteal phase. Maximal thickness. Starts as a result of _______ secreted by corpus luteum.

Secretory phase. Progesterone.

198

Morphology of the endometrium during the secretory phase

Simple branched tubular glands

199

Stimulates epithelial cells of uterine glands to accumulate glycogen. Cell undergo _______ secretion. Glandular lumen ______.

Progesterone. Apocrine. Dilates.

200

In Secretory phase: glands become highly ______. Superficial microvasculature includes thin-walled, ___________.

Coiled. Blood filled lacuna.

201

In Secretory phase: _________ reaches maximum thickness. Accumulation of secretions. Edema in stroma. If ________ had taken place, secretory activity are optimal for embryo implantation and nutrition.

Endometrium. Fertilization.

202

In Secretory phase: major source for embryogenic nutrition before and during implantation.

Uterine gland secretion

203

In Secretory phase: it inhibits strong contractions of the myometrium that might interfere with implantation.

Progesterone

204

Viable cells of endometrium, displaced during menstruation, reflux into one or both uterine tubes, move upward and grow outside the uterus rather than undergoing vaginal discharge.

Endometrius

205

Endometrius is under the influence of _______. _______ function grows and degenerates monthly without effective removal. Leads to pain, inflammation, cyst, adhesions, scar and infertility.

Estrogen. Ectopic.

206

Embryonic implantation mainly of

Decidua & Placenta

207

Embryonic implantation: ________ is fertilized in the ampulla of uterine tube. Resulting _______ undergoes mitotic cleavages as it is moved passively toward the uterus.

Oocyte. Zygote.

208

Embryonic implantation: Embryo remains within the covering of the

Zona pellucida

209

Embryonic implantation: becomes smaller with each division . Cells that result from segmentation of zygote.

Blastomere

210

Embryonic implantation: compact aggregate of blastomeres

Morula

211

Embryonic implantation: embryo reaches uterus ______ days after fertilization. Loses zona pellucida.

4-5 days

212

Embryonic implantation: a cavity. Develops in center of morula.

Blastocyst

213

Embryonic implantation: peripheral arrangement of blastomeres around the cavity

Trophoblast

214

Embryonic implantation: collection of cells inside the trophoblast

Embryoblast/Inner cell mass

215

Blastocyst attaches to the surface epithelial cells of the late secretory phase endometrium.

Implantation/Nidation

216

In Implantation: proteolytic penetration of blastocyst from epithelium into underlying stroma occurs in ______. Driven by ______. Cells of embryoblast rearrange as two new cavities.

3 days. Trophoblast.

217

In Implantation: makes contact with epiblast

Amnion

218

In Implantation: makes contact with hypoblast

Yolk sac

219

Parts of the embryo develop from this. Composed of two cavities which are epiblast and hypoblast.

Bilaminar Embryonic disc

220

In Implantation: trophoblast differentiates to these which contributes to embryonic portion of placenta.

Cytotrophoblast & Syncytiotrophoblast

221

More superficial. An invasive, multinucleated mass.

Syncytiotrophoblast

222

In Implantation: ___ day after ovulation, embryo is totally implanted in the endometrium. Nutrient derived from blood & secretion.

9th

223

In Implantation: Prevent adverse reaction of uterus to the implanted embryo

Cytokines

224

What releases cytokines (anti inflammatory)

Trophoblast cells

225

In Implantation: goes through profound changes

Endometrial stroma

226

In Implantation: _______ enlarged & polygonal. More active in protein synthesis. Now called as ________.

Fibroblast. Decidual cells.

227

In Implantation: endometrium now referred as

Decidua

228

Layer of Decidua: between embryo and myometrium

Decidua basalis

229

Layer of Decidua: between embryo and lumen of the uterus

Decidua capsularis

230

Layer of Decidua: remainder of the decidua

Decidua parietalis

231

Site of nutrient, waste, 02 & C02 exchanges between choriona nd maternal part. Contains tissues from both individual.

Placenta

232

Embryonic part derived from former trophoblast

Chorion

233

From decidua basalis

Maternal part

234

Chorion and maternal part form this. Project into blood filled lacuna of decidua. Provides larger surface for nutrient and O2 absorption. Invaded by __________. Continuous with wide capillaries by end of ______ of pregnancy. Suspended in the pools of maternal blood. Have enormous area for metabolic exchange.

Chorionic villi. Embryonic mesenchyme. 3rd week.

235

In placenta: diffusion occurs in

Trophoblast layer, CT of villi & Capillary endothelium "TCC"

236

An endocrine organ which produces HCG, chorionic thyrotropin, chorionic corticotropin, estrogen and progesterone.

Placenta

237

Initial attachment of embryo occurs on _________ walls of embryo. Sometimes attaches to _______. _______ between fetus and vagina.

Ventral/dorsal. Internal OS. Placenta.

238

Obstruction in the passage of fetus @ parturition

CS delivery & Placenta previa

239

Embryo sometimes attaches to epithelium of _________. Zygote enters ___________ attaches to peritoneum and develops.

Uterine tube. Abdominal cavity.

240

Lower and more cylindrical part of the uterus. Differ in histologic structure.

Uterine cervix

241

Lining epithelium of uterine cervix

Simple columnar epithelium

242

Lamina propia of uterine cervix

Thick

243

Region wherein endocervical canal opens into the vagina. Bulges into upper vagina. Covered by __________.

External. Exocervical mucosa.

244

Lining epithelium of exocervical mucosa

Stratified squamous epithelium

245

Simple columnar undergoes abrupt transition to stratified squamous

Transformation zone - Distinct zone

246

Little SM. Consist mainly of DCT.

Middle layer of uterine cervix

247

In uterine cervix: mucosa contains _________ which produces mucus. Does not _______ during menstruation.

Cervical glands. Desquamate.

248

In uterine cervix: time of ovulation, _______ secretions are maximal, watery and facilitate movement through uterus by sperm.

Mucus

249

In uterine cervix: during _________. Increase in ________. Mucous secretion becomes viscous and hinder passage of both sperm and microorganisms into the body of uterus.

Luteal phase. Progesterone.

250

In uterine cervix: during pregnancy, _________ proliferate. Secrete abundant highly viscous mucus. Forms a ______ in endocervical canal.

Cervical glands. Plug.

251

Derived from stratified squamous epithelium

Cervical carcinoma

252

Wall lacks glands. 3 layers are muscular layer, mucosa and adventitia.

Vagina

253

Vagina is covered by ________ which is produced by ________.

Mucus. Uterine cervix.

254

Small glands. Provides additional lubricating mucus during intercourse. Opens into vestibule.

Vestibular glands

255

Space enclosed within labia minora. Also contains vaginal orifice, urethra and ante erectile function of clitoris. Covered by __________.

Vestibule. External genitalia.

256

Lining epithelium of external genitalia

Stratified squamous

257

Epithelium of external genitalia contains small amount of _______. Does not undergo _______. When stimulated by ________, cells synthesize and accumulate ________.

Keratohyaline. Keratinization. Estrogen. Glycogen.

258

Bacteria metabolize glycogen to Lactic acid. Low pH in vagina. Protection against pathogenic microorganism.

Desquamate

259

Lamina propia of the vagina: rich in _________ & numerous narrow ________ projecting into epithelial cell layer.

Elastic fibers. Papillae.

260

CT of vagina: contains ________ & ________.

Lymphocytes and Neutrophils.

261

Mucosa of the vagina has few

Sensory nerve endings

262

Muscular layer of the vagina composed of two indistinct lauers of SM. _______ bundle next to mucosa. Thicker _______ bundle next to adventitial layer.

Circular. Longitudinal.

263

Makes vaginal wall strong and elastic

Elastic fiber

264

Outer layer contains extensive venous plexus, lymphatics and nerves.

DCT of Adventitia

265

Develop embryologically as invaginations of surface ________ along 2 ventral lines, the milk lines, from axilla to groin.

Mammary gland. Ectoderm.

266

Mammary gland consists of lobes of ____________ type in whichf unction is to secrete milk.

Compound tubuloalveolar

267

Breast dev't during Puberty: only composition of male and female mammary gland before puberty. Near the nipple. Small branching duct emerges.

Lactiferous sinus

268

Breast dev't during Puberty: Increase in circulating estrogen, breast ______ in size, _______ accumulation in CT, Increase growth and branching of duct system and _______ enlarges.

Increase. Adipocyte. Nipple.

269

Breast dev't during Puberty: lobules contained in the parenchymal structure of non pregnant adult women's breast. Embedded in ___________ connective tissue. ________ CT separates the lobes.

Terminal Duct Lobular Units. Loose vascular. Dense cellular.

270

Breast dev't during Puberty: Lining epithelium of Lactiferous sinus

Stratified cuboidal

271

Breast dev't during Puberty: Lining epithelium of Lactiferous & Terminal ducts

Simple cuboidal covered by loosely packed myoepithelial cells

272

Skin covering the nipple. Thin skin with _______ gland. Epithelium continuous w/ lactiferous sinus. Contains more melanin. Skin is supplied with sensory nerve ending.

Areola. Sebaceous.

273

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Estrogen, Progesterone, Prolactin & HPL. Results in proliferation of secretory alveoli at ends of _________.

Intralobular ducts

274

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: cuboidal epithelium with ________ myoepithelial cells between secretory cells and basal lamina.

Alveoli

275

Shape of alveoli

Spherical

276

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: grow & develop during pregnancy in preparation for lactation. _______ becomes less prominent.

Alveoli & ducts. Stroma.

277

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: _____ in lobule is infiltrated in lymphocytes and _______.

LCT. Plasma cells.

278

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Plasma cells are more numerous and produce

Immunoglobulins (secretory IgA)

279

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: accumulates late pregnancy. Causes dilatation of glandular alveoli and ducts. Rich in protein, ______ and electrolytes.

Colostrum. Vit. A.

280

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: colostrum is produced under influence of _________.

Prolactin

281

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Igs produced by ________ are transferred to colostrum. ________ immunity ( _______ ) Breastfeeding.

Plasma cells. Passive. Acquired.

282

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: type of secretion. Proteins- golgi- packaged into secreting vesicles- exocytosis.

Merocrine secretion

283

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: type of secretion. Lipid droplets- pass out the cells- lumen.

Apocrine secretion

284

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Proteins in human milk (____%) digested as source of AA by infant.

1.5%. Caseins, B lactoglobulin & Gamma lactoglobulin.

285

Caseins aggregate as

Micelles

286

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Lipids (____%)

4%

287

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Sugar. Lactose (___%) major source of energy. Synthesize in _______. Draws water. Adds to milk volume.

7-8%. Golgi.

288

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: Causes contraction of Lactiferous sinuses and ducts & myoepithelial cells of alveoli.

Oxytocin

289

Breast during Pregnancy & Lactation: initiated by negative emotion, frustration, anxiety and anger.

Milk ejection reflex

290

Postlactational Regression in MG: when breastfeeding stops, secretory ______ degenerates. Apoptosis. Sloughing of whole cells. Dead cells and debris removed by ________.

Alveoli. Macrophage.

291

Postlactational Regression in MG: _____ system inactivates.

Duct

292

Postlactational Regression in MG: alveoli and ducts reduce further in size. Loss of fibroblast, collagen in stroma and elastic fiber.

Menopause