Flashcards in Urinary System(handout based) Deck (89)
When does the development of urinary system begins?
-before genital system
Longitudinal elevation of mesoderm
What forms the urinary system?
What forms the genital system?
Urinary system consists of
What are the three sets of excretory organs in embryo?
Composed of seven to ten solid cell groups in cervical region.
What week does Pronephros develop? Does it degenerate?
Early in the 4th week
Pronephric ducts run _______ and open into the _________.
What week does Mesonephros develop? Does it regenerate?
End of 4th week, NO! Degenerates
In mesonephros, tubules open into the _______ to ________.
Mesonephric duct, cloaca
Mesonephric ducts turns into
Ducts of testis
Permanent kidney. In what week? When does it function?
Metanephros, 5th week, 9th week
Where do kidney and ureter originates?
What sources did the kidney and ureter develop from?
-metanephric mass of intermediate mesoderm( metanephric blastoma)
-ureteric bud/metanephric diverticulum
Metanephric blastema forms what?
Nephron: Bowman's capsule, PCT, Loop of Henle & DCT
Ureteric Bud forms what?
Stalk-ureter: renal pelvis, major & minor calyces, collecting tubules(1-3million)
Formation of bladder and urethra occurs when?
4th-7th week of development
In the formation of bladder, what divides the cloaca?
In the formation of urinary bladder and urethra, the cloaca is composed of?
Anorectal canal & Primitive urogenital sinus
Upper Urinary bladder originates from?
Pelvic part of the Primitive UG sinus forms what?
Male: prostatic & membranous urethra
Phallic part of the Primitive UG sinus forms what?
Male: penile urethra
Congenital cystic kidneys,renal agenesis,double & ectopic ureter,pelvic kidney,horseshoe kidney,urachal fistula,cyst & sinus
Regulation of body fluid and constancy of the internal environment
Each kidney lobe consists of
Medullary pyramid & its associated cortex
Renal pyramids are separated by
Renal columns of of Bertini
A portion of the kidney containing those nephrons that are served by a common collecting duct
The human kidney has about 4 million filtering units(functional unit of the kidney) called as
The nephron consists of four parts
Renal corpuscle, PCT, thin & thick limbs of Henle and DCT
Capillary loops surrounded by an epithelial cover
Surrounding capillaries of the renal glomerulus
Podocytes (bowman's visceral epithelial cells)
What are the two branching of the podocyte processes?
Primary process & secondary process(pedicels)
Small spaces between adjacent processes are called
Functional morphology of renal corpuscle has how many filtration barrier?
Filtration barrier that restricts RBCs (450 kd)
Capillary endothelial pores
Filtration barrier that restricts 240kd molecules but transmits 170kd molecules
Filtration barrier that restricts transmission of 40kd molecules to Bowman's capsule
Decrease in BP will stimulate what cell? at what site? And What will it release? (Three way question ang peg! Haha. Ampilitis )
Juxtaglomerular cells, nephron, renin release
Lining epithelium of PCT?
Simple cuboidal epithelium with brush borders
What does PCT reabsorbs?
Glucose, amino acid, 75% of H20 and NACL
What happens at the thick Loop of Henle?
Active transport of NACL
What happens at the thin Loop of Henle
NA and H20 diffusion
Lining epithelium of the DCT?
Simple cuboidal epithelium w/out brush borders
What happens in the DCT?
Na reabsorption (aldosterone), H & K secretion
What hormone is responsible for Na reabsorption?
What is the lining epithelium of the Collecting duct
Simple cuboidal & Simple columnar lining epithelium
Principal & intercalated cells are found where?
Reabsorbs Na & H20, secrete K
Secrete H, reabsorbs K & H2CO3
Granular variety of myoepithelioid cells in the wall of afferent arteriole. Replaces the typical smooth muscle cells of the tunica media of the artery.
Where can you find JG cells
A decrease in afferent arterial volume secondary to low perfusion pressure results in the release of
An enzyme that is released into the blood and acts upon blood proteins to produce a potent vasoconstrictor
A potent vasoconstrictor that is stimulated by the release of renin. Elevates BP
Hypertension of renal origin can be cured by
Removal of the diseased/ischemic kidney
Affects blood volume and osmolarity.
Changes of blood volume and osmolarity may lead to the release of what hormone?
Where does aldosterone released from? And from what cell?
Adrenal cortex, cells of the zona glomerulosa
Hormone that acts upon the renal tubules to enhance sodium reabsorption
A second system unrelated to kidney that regulates the volume and osmolarity of the extracellular fluid of the body
Hypothalamus, posterior lobe of the Pituitary, Neurohypophysis
What type of collagen does the basement membrane of kidney contains?
Type IV collagen
What are the main components of the ureter?
-Inner layer of transitional epithelium
-highly vascularized connective tissue
-smooth muscle layer
-outer layer of connective tissue
The capacity of the epithelial cells to slide upon one another leads to
Reduce thickness of epithelium. As a result, the interior surface of the bladder increases
Lining epithelium of spongy urethra
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium, surrounded by LCT sheath housing a rich vascular supply
What envelops the entire urethra?
Erectile tissue of the corpus spongiosum
This deliver the secretory product into the lumen of the urethra, lubricating its epithelial lining
Glands of Littre
Ureter: LE, LP, ME & TA
Transitional, LCT/DCT, IL & OC, LCT
Urinary bladder: LE, LP, ME & TA
Transitional, elastic/LCT, IL MC OL, Upper: TS Lower: TA
Length of female urethra
Length of male urethra
LE of prostatic urethra
LE of membranous urethra
LE of Cavernous urethra
Pseudo/stratified columnar epithelium
What can be found on the mucosa of the urethra?
Lacuna of morgagni & Littre's gland(urethral glands)
Lamina propia of urethra is composed of
LE of female urethra
Upper: transitional, Lower: Stratified Squamous
Excretory organ: rudimentary, will degenerate & precursor
Excretory duct: contains mesonephric/wolffian duct. 5th embryogenic stage, temporary excretory organ fate
What happens if metanephros become nonfunctional
Will not produce or develop urine
Composed of renal corpuscles & tubules
Discontinuation of collecting tubules will lead to
-Formation of cyst (polycyst:fluid)
-will not meet
Anomaly: Kidney did not develop
Anomaly: Formation of four ureters
Double & ectopic ureter
Anomaly: Dislocation of kidney. Supposed to be in the lumbar part
Anomaly: Aromatic scent
At what percent will the signs & symptoms of a nonfunctional kidney start to appear