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Flashcards in Urinary System(handout based) Deck (89)
0

When does the development of urinary system begins?

-before genital system
-4th week
-intermediate mesoderm

1

Longitudinal elevation of mesoderm

Urogenital ridge

2

What forms the urinary system?

Nephrogenic cord/ridge

3

What forms the genital system?

Genital/gonadal ridge

4

Urinary system consists of

Kidney,Ureter,Bladder,Urethra

5

What are the three sets of excretory organs in embryo?

Pronephros,Mesonephros,Metanephros

6

Composed of seven to ten solid cell groups in cervical region.

Pronephros

7

What week does Pronephros develop? Does it degenerate?

Early in the 4th week

8

Pronephric ducts run _______ and open into the _________.

Caudally, cloaca

9

What week does Mesonephros develop? Does it regenerate?

End of 4th week, NO! Degenerates

10

In mesonephros, tubules open into the _______ to ________.

Mesonephric duct, cloaca

11

Mesonephric ducts turns into

Ducts of testis

12

Permanent kidney. In what week? When does it function?

Metanephros, 5th week, 9th week

13

Where do kidney and ureter originates?

Mesodermal

14

What sources did the kidney and ureter develop from?

-metanephric mass of intermediate mesoderm( metanephric blastoma)
-ureteric bud/metanephric diverticulum

15

Metanephric blastema forms what?

Nephron: Bowman's capsule, PCT, Loop of Henle & DCT

16

Ureteric Bud forms what?

Stalk-ureter: renal pelvis, major & minor calyces, collecting tubules(1-3million)

17

Formation of bladder and urethra occurs when?

4th-7th week of development

18

In the formation of bladder, what divides the cloaca?

Urorectal septum

19

In the formation of urinary bladder and urethra, the cloaca is composed of?

Anorectal canal & Primitive urogenital sinus

20

Upper Urinary bladder originates from?

Urogenital sinus

21

Pelvic part of the Primitive UG sinus forms what?

Male: prostatic & membranous urethra
Female: urethra

22

Phallic part of the Primitive UG sinus forms what?

Male: penile urethra
Female: urethra

23

Congenital anomalies

Congenital cystic kidneys,renal agenesis,double & ectopic ureter,pelvic kidney,horseshoe kidney,urachal fistula,cyst & sinus

24

Regulation of body fluid and constancy of the internal environment

Kidney

25

Each kidney lobe consists of

Medullary pyramid & its associated cortex

26

Renal pyramids are separated by

Renal columns of of Bertini

27

A portion of the kidney containing those nephrons that are served by a common collecting duct

Renal lobule

28

The human kidney has about 4 million filtering units(functional unit of the kidney) called as

Nephron

29

The nephron consists of four parts

Renal corpuscle, PCT, thin & thick limbs of Henle and DCT

30

Capillary loops surrounded by an epithelial cover

Renal corpuscle

31

Surrounding capillaries of the renal glomerulus

Podocytes (bowman's visceral epithelial cells)

32

What are the two branching of the podocyte processes?

Primary process & secondary process(pedicels)

33

Small spaces between adjacent processes are called

Filtration slits

34

Functional morphology of renal corpuscle has how many filtration barrier?

Three

35

Filtration barrier that restricts RBCs (450 kd)

Capillary endothelial pores

36

Filtration barrier that restricts 240kd molecules but transmits 170kd molecules

Basement membrane

37

Filtration barrier that restricts transmission of 40kd molecules to Bowman's capsule

Slit pore

38

Decrease in BP will stimulate what cell? at what site? And What will it release? (Three way question ang peg! Haha. Ampilitis )

Juxtaglomerular cells, nephron, renin release

39

Lining epithelium of PCT?

Simple cuboidal epithelium with brush borders

40

What does PCT reabsorbs?

Glucose, amino acid, 75% of H20 and NACL

41

What happens at the thick Loop of Henle?

Active transport of NACL

42

What happens at the thin Loop of Henle

NA and H20 diffusion

43

Lining epithelium of the DCT?

Simple cuboidal epithelium w/out brush borders

44

What happens in the DCT?

Na reabsorption (aldosterone), H & K secretion

45

What hormone is responsible for Na reabsorption?

Aldosterone

46

What is the lining epithelium of the Collecting duct

Simple cuboidal & Simple columnar lining epithelium

47

Principal & intercalated cells are found where?

Collecting duct

48

Reabsorbs Na & H20, secrete K

Principal cells

49

Secrete H, reabsorbs K & H2CO3

intercalated cells

50

Granular variety of myoepithelioid cells in the wall of afferent arteriole. Replaces the typical smooth muscle cells of the tunica media of the artery.

Juxtaglomerular cells

51

Where can you find JG cells

Afferent arteriole

52

A decrease in afferent arterial volume secondary to low perfusion pressure results in the release of

Renin

53

An enzyme that is released into the blood and acts upon blood proteins to produce a potent vasoconstrictor

Renin

54

A potent vasoconstrictor that is stimulated by the release of renin. Elevates BP

Angiotensin

55

Hypertension of renal origin can be cured by

Removal of the diseased/ischemic kidney

56

Affects blood volume and osmolarity.

Renin

57

Changes of blood volume and osmolarity may lead to the release of what hormone?

Aldosterone

58

Where does aldosterone released from? And from what cell?

Adrenal cortex, cells of the zona glomerulosa

59

Hormone that acts upon the renal tubules to enhance sodium reabsorption

Aldosterone

60

A second system unrelated to kidney that regulates the volume and osmolarity of the extracellular fluid of the body

Hypothalamus, posterior lobe of the Pituitary, Neurohypophysis

61

What type of collagen does the basement membrane of kidney contains?

Type IV collagen

62

What are the main components of the ureter?

-Inner layer of transitional epithelium
-highly vascularized connective tissue
-smooth muscle layer
-outer layer of connective tissue

63

The capacity of the epithelial cells to slide upon one another leads to

Reduce thickness of epithelium. As a result, the interior surface of the bladder increases

64

Lining epithelium of spongy urethra

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

65

Lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium, surrounded by LCT sheath housing a rich vascular supply

Spongy urethra

66

What envelops the entire urethra?

Erectile tissue of the corpus spongiosum

67

This deliver the secretory product into the lumen of the urethra, lubricating its epithelial lining

Glands of Littre

68

Ureter: LE, LP, ME & TA

Transitional, LCT/DCT, IL & OC, LCT

69

Urinary bladder: LE, LP, ME & TA

Transitional, elastic/LCT, IL MC OL, Upper: TS Lower: TA

70

Length of female urethra

2-4 cms

71

Length of male urethra

10-20 cms

72

LE of prostatic urethra

Transitional

73

LE of membranous urethra

Pseudo/stratified columnar

74

LE of Cavernous urethra

Pseudo/stratified columnar epithelium

75

What can be found on the mucosa of the urethra?

Lacuna of morgagni & Littre's gland(urethral glands)

76

Lamina propia of urethra is composed of

Urethral glands

77

LE of female urethra

Upper: transitional, Lower: Stratified Squamous

78

Excretory organ: rudimentary, will degenerate & precursor

Pronephros

79

Excretory duct: contains mesonephric/wolffian duct. 5th embryogenic stage, temporary excretory organ fate

Mesonephros

80

What happens if metanephros become nonfunctional

Will not produce or develop urine

81

Composed of renal corpuscles & tubules

Nephron

82

Discontinuation of collecting tubules will lead to

-Formation of cyst (polycyst:fluid)
-will not meet

83

Anomaly: Kidney did not develop

Renal agenesis

84

Anomaly: Formation of four ureters

Double & ectopic ureter

85

Anomaly: Dislocation of kidney. Supposed to be in the lumbar part

Pelvic kidney

86

Anomaly: Aromatic scent

Urachal fistula

87

At what percent will the signs & symptoms of a nonfunctional kidney start to appear

70%

88

UTI is more common in what gender

Female