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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Endocrine System Deck (204)
0

Are scattered throughout the body.

Endocrine glands

1

Influences the metabolic processes of the body.

Hormones

2

The glands are _______ thus, hormonal secretions are poured directly to the blood through the capillaries.

Ductless

3

The internal supporting framework of the endocrine glands

Reticular tissue

4

The endocrine gland is ________, thus provided with rich capillary networks among and between groups of secretory cells.

Highly vascular

5

The capillaries are _________ in which endothelial wall contains numerous pores or openings which are covered by very thin ________.

Fenestrated type. Diaphragms.

6

Development of endocrine system are from what origins.

Ectodermal, Mesodermal & Endodermal

7

Ectodermal in origin

Pituitary gland, Adrenal medulla & Pineal gland "PAP"

8

Mesodermal in origin

Leydig cells of the testes, Adrenal cortex & Theca internal cells of the ovary "LAT"

9

Endodermal in origin

Thyroid gland, Islets of Langerhans, Parathyroid gland & Parafollicular cells or C-cells "TIPP"

10

Pituitary gland develops from what sources

Infundibulum & Rathke's pouch

11

Primitive of mouth cavity

Stomodeum

12

Ectodermal outpocketing of the stomodeum. Gives rise to adenohypophysis.

Rathke's pouch

13

Anterior wall of the Rathke's pouch gives rise to

Pars distalis & Pars tuberalis

14

Posterior wall of the Rathke's pouch gives rise to

Pars intermedia

15

Downward extension of the diencephalon. Gives rise to neurohypophysis.

Infundibulum

16

Neurohypophysis is composed of

Pars nervosa(infundibular process), Infundibular stem/stalk & Median eminence of tuber cinereum "PIM"

17

Other name for pituitary gland

Hypophysis cerebri

18

_______ is a pea shaped glandular organ lodged in the _______ of the ________ of the body of the _______.

Hypophysis. Hypophyseal fossa. Sella tursica. Sphenoid.

19

Pituitary gland is connected by the _______ stalk to the base of the brain and is covered by a capsule of ________.

Infundibulum. Dense connective tissue.

20

Divisions of the hypophysis

Neurohypophysis & Adenohypophysis

21

Posterior part developed as a downgrowth from the floor of the __________.

Neurohypophysis. Diencephalon.

22

Anterior part derived from the Rathke's pouch. An outgrowth from the __________ of the primitive oral cavity.

Adenohypophysis. Ectodermal roof.

23

Subdivisions of the Adenohypophysis

Pars Tuberalis, Pars Intermedia & Pars Distalis "TID"

24

Largest subdivision of adenohypophysis

Pars distalis

25

2 grouped categories of the cell in Pars distalis

Chromophobes & Chromophils

26

In chromophils, 2 types of cells based on affinity to stains

Acidophils & Basophils

27

Acidophils secrete

Prolactin & GH "PG"

28

Basophils secrete

FSH, LH, ACTH & TSH "FLAT"

29

Smallest and least numerous among the cells in the pars distalis. Since they are _____, their nuclei lie close to each other; and their cytoplasm is ______, thus hardly seen.

Chromophobes. Small. Scanty.

30

Chromophobes are also referred as ________, since some of them may differentiate into acidophils & basophils as the need arises.

Reserve cells

31

It is the most highly vascular portion of the hypophysis. It is formed of ___________ of cells that descend towards the pars distalis.

Pars tuberalis. Longitudianl column/cords.

32

No hormone isolated in this subdivision

Pars tuberalis

33

Cell types of the Pars tuberalis

Undifferentiated cells & Small basophils & acidophils

34

It is found between the pars distalis and the infundibular process. It is characterized by presence of _______ filled with colloid and lined by ______ epithelium, which are called ________.

Pars Intermedia. Follicles/Cyst. Columnar. Rathke's cyst.

35

Hormone that causes the dispersion of melanin pigments in the ______ and increases the pigmentation of the skin. Secreted by?

Melanocyte Stimulating hormone. Melanoblast. Pars Intermedia.

36

Cells that are also found in the Pars Intermedia.

Polygonal Basophilic cells

37

It is formed of venules that connectbthe capillaries in the median eminence with the capillary sinusoids in the pars distalis.

Hypophyseal system

38

The ________ from the hypothalamus reach the pars distalis through _______.

Neurohormone. Nerve fibers.

39

The blood supply of the hypophysis is delivered from the _________, which are branches of

Superior hypophyseal arteries. Internal carotid & PCA.

40

It is thru the ________ that the releasing hormones from the hypothalamus reach the secretory cells of the pars distalis.

Hypophyseal portal circulation

41

Is formed of unmyelinated nerve fibers of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract, which are formed of axons of the neurons in the hypothalamic nuclei.

Neurohypophysis

42

In neurohypophysis, the axons descend through the _______ to the ________ and __________.

Median eminence. Infundibular stalk. Infundibular process.

43

Also found in the neurohypophysis, part of the pars nervosa. Cells with numerous processes and are considered as modified neuroglial cells.

Pituicytes

44

Are small, spherical structures containing neurohormones stored in pars _______ or in the infundibular process. These are neurosecretory materials secreted by the neurons in the hypothalamic nuclei and travel along the axons of these neurons to be stored and released from the ________ of the nerve fibers.

Herring bodies. Pars nervosa. Axolemma.

45

Hormones in the Pars nervosa

Pitocin(oxytocin) & Pitressin(ADH)

46

Secreted by the supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Increase water retention.

ADH (Pitressin)

47

Secreted by the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. Stimulates uterine contraction.

Oxytocin(Pitocin)

48

The gland is found in the anterior part of the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by a narrow _______, which crosses the trachea just below the cricoid cartilage.

Thyroid gland. Isthmus.

49

In thyroid gland, it has a _________ capsule that is continuous with the surrounding _________. The outer capsule is loosely adherent on its deep surface of another layer of moderately dense connective tissue that is intimately adherent to the gland.

Connective tissue. Cervical fascia.

50

The thyroid gland develops from the proliferation in the floor of the ________ between the ________ & _______, at a point layer indicated by the _________.

Pharynx. Tuberculum impar & copula. Foramen cecum.

51

The thyroid gland descends in front of the pharyngeal gut as a ________. This is connected to the tongue by a narrow canal, the ________, which later disappears.

Bilobed diverticulum. Thyroglossal duct.

52

In thyroid gland, the cystic remnants of the thyroglossal duct is called

Thyroglossal cyst

53

In thyroid gland, this gives rise to the ultimobranchial body, which later is incorporated in the thyroid gland.

5th pharyngeal pouch

54

The cells of the ultimobranchial body give rise to ____________ of the thyroid gland secreting _________.

Parafollicular/C-cells. Calcitonin.

55

The structural unit of the thyroid gland is the __________, which are lined by _______ and containing gelatinous _________. This represents the stored product of the secretory activity by the lining epithelium.

Spherical cystlike follicles. Simple cuboidal epithelium. Colloid.

56

The follicular cells are surrounded by a

Thin basal lamina

57

In the thyroid gland, the epithelial cells vary in height, but are commonly _______, ______ when the gland is hypoactive, _______ when it is hyperactive.

Cuboidal. Squamous. Columnar.

58

In the thyroid gland, nucleus is _______, _______ located, poor in ______ and contain _______ nuclei.

Spherical. Centrally. Chromatin. One or more nuclei.

59

Aside from the follicular cells, there are cells which are found singly or in groups wedged between the follicular cells and the lamina or between the thyroid follicles known as

Parafollicular cells

60

Parafollicular cells named based on its position, but with the discovery that they produce ________, they are now called ______. Other names are

Calcitonin. C-cells. Light cells, Mitochondria-rich cells & Ultimobranchial cells.

61

Decrease blood calcium level by the ______ or parafollicular cells through the secretion of _______.

Thyroid gland. C-cells. Calcitonin.

62

Synthesize, store and release hormones concerned with the regulation of metabolic by the follicular epithelial cells.

Thyroid gland

63

Hormones secreted in the thyroid gland are

Triiodothyroxine(T3) & Tetraidotyroxine(T4)

64

Development of the parathyroid gland: from the dorsal wing of the 3rd pharyngeal pouches.

Inferior parathyroid

65

Development of the parathyroid gland: from the dorsal wing of the 4th pharyngeal pouches.

Superior parathyroid

66

These are two pairs of glands which are small, __________ adhering to the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. A ________ separates them from the thyroid gland.

Parathyroid gland. Yellow-brown oval bodies. Connective tissue capsule.

67

Delicate __________ partially divide the gland into poorly definend lobules and still finer ones separate the epithelial cells into anastomosing cords & groups.

Connective tissue septa

68

The parenchyma of the parathyroid gland is composed of two types of cells

Oxyphil cells & Principal/Chief cells

69

Constant occurrence. Polyhedral cells with round nuclei, with loosely arranged chromatin giving a vesicular appearance, and basophilic cytoplasm.

Principal/Chief cells

70

Shape of Chief cells

Polyhedral w/ rounded nuclei

71

Cytoplasm of Principal cells

Basophilic

72

Appear only at the end of the first decade of life until puberty. Larger cells with smaller and darker nuclei and acidophilic cytoplasm.

Oxyphil cells

73

Size of oxyphil cells

Larger cells

74

Nuclei of oxyphil cells

Small and darker nuclei

75

Cytoplasm of the oxyphil cells

Acidophilic

76

Regulate calcium concentration by stimulating resorption of bone and reabsorption of calcium ions from ultrafiltration of the kidneys and with the aid of _______ absorption of calcium from the gut.

Parathyroid gland. Vitamin D.

77

Through the _______ secretion of _______, blood calcium level increases.

Principal cell. PTH.

78

About the ___ of development, mesothelial cells proliferate and later differentiate into large acidophilic structures forming the ___________ of the adrenal gland.

Adrenal cortex. 5th week. Primitive Fetal Cortex.

79

In adrenal cortex, shortly later a second wave of cells from the ________ penetrate and surround the original acidophilic mass. These cells will form the ________ of the adrenal gland.

Mesothelium. Definitive cortex.

80

Arises from the _________ cell. These cells invade the medial aspect and become cords and clusters forming the

Neural crest. Medulla of the adrenal gland.

81

The cells of the adrenal medulla are stained _________ with ________. Hence they are called _________.

Yellowish brown. Chrome salts. Chromaffin cells.

82

Are roughly triangular, flattened organs embedded in the retroperitoneal fat tissue at the cranial pole of each kidney.

Adrenal or Suprarenal glands

83

The adrenal gland has a ______ capsule of connective tissue that extends into the cortex as ________.

Thick. Trabeculae.

84

The adrenal glands has two functionally and structurally distinct parts

Cortex & Medulla

85

The principal secretory cells of the medulla are derived from the

Neural crest cells

86

The secretory cells of the cortex are derived from the

Mesodermal cells in the nephrogenic ridge

87

Forms the bulk of the gland.

Adrenal cortex

88

The adrenal cortex has three distinguishable concentric zones

Zona glomerulosa, Zona Fasciculata & Zona Reticularis

89

The middle and broadest zone is composed of cell cords coursing _______ to one another in ______ toward the medulla.

Zona fasciculata. Parallel. Radial.

90

In zona fasciculata, the secretory cells are ______ or _______ and sometimes ________, which are ________.

Cuboidal/polyhedral. Binucleated. Vesicular.

91

It produces aldosterone

Zona glomerulosa

92

Adjacent to the capsule is a narrow zone in which the cords of _________ are in _______ groups.

Zona glomerulosa. Columnar cells. Ovoid.

93

there is ___________ within a cell group as in exocrine glands, but there is a rich network of blood vessels externally.

Zona glomerulosa. No central cavity.

94

A potent mineralocorticoid causing water and sodium retention im exchange for potassium in the kidney.

Aldosterone

95

Network of cell cords, which are smaller than those of the fasciculata, _______ nuclei, fewer lipid droplets and numerous ___________.

Zona reticularis. Darker. Lipofuschin.

96

The major products of zona reticularis

Glucocorticoids(cortisol) & Dehydroepiandrosterone(androgen)

97

The most important glucocorticoid, has a protein wasting effect and promotes __________.

Cortisol. Gluconeogenesis.

98

It is probable that the ___________ produces much of the cortisol in unstressed individuals.

Outer part of the fasciculata

99

The secretory cells here are in anastomosing groups associated with blood vessels. The parenchymal to _______, and contain _________, which become brown when oxidized by __________.

Adrenal medulla. Columnar. Cytoplasmic granules. Potassium bichromate.

100

In adrenal medulla, The chromaffin reaction of the granules is due to their content of __________.

Catecholamines. Epi & NorEpi

101

Increases the heart rate and cardiac output without significantly increasing the BP and other metabolic effects.

Epinephrine

102

Is in the brain and peripheral tissues, the principal transmitter substance of adrenergic neurons.

Norepinephrine

103

Develops from the caudal part of the roof of the diencephalon. It appears as an epithelial thickening on the midline by the ____ of development. Then it invaginates to become a solid organ located at the roof of the _______.

Pineal gland. 7th week. Mesothelium.

104

Pineal gland is AKA

Epiphysis cerebri

105

The pineal gland is a slightly _________ shape appendage of the brain, attached to the roof of the ______ by the ______.

Flattened cone. 3rd ventricle. Peduncle.

106

The pineal gland is made up of pale staining ________, with _________ granular nuclei and prominent nucleoli, the _______.

Epitheloid cells. Round/oval. Pinealocytes.

107

In pineal gland, the second cell type is the _______, which occur in the perivascular areas. They are less numerous and nuclei are ______ & ______.

Interstitial cells. Darker & Smaller.

108

In pineal gland, this provide supporting network to the cells.

Neuroglial cells

109

In the pineal gland, these are mulberry shaped concretions largely of ________, which makes the radiological landmark.

Brain sand. Hydroxyapatite.

110

Other name for Brain sand

Corpora arenacea/Psammoma's bodies

111

Pineal gland reaches its' maximal development by the _________ and regresses later in life.

Middle of first decade

112

Pineal gland has a high level of ________ & ________.

Serotonin & Melatonin.

113

Serotonin & Melatonin are secreted by the

Pinealocytes

114

Controls the onset of puberty

Pineal gland

115

Has an exocrine & endocrine portion

Pancreas

116

Part of the pancreas which secretes hormones

Endocrine portion

117

Part of the pancreas which secretes digestive juice essential for the digestion of carbohydrates, fats & proteins.

Exocrine portion

118

The endocrine function of the pancreas is performed by a highly vascularized aggregation of secreting cells which are scattered all throughout. Comprised only one to two percent of the gland.

Islets of Langerhans

119

The islets of Langerhans develops from the _____________ during the ______ of development and scattered throughout the gland.

Parenchymatous pancreatic tissue. 3rd month.

120

Insulin secretion begins on the ____ of development.

5th month

121

The islets are _________ masses of _____ staining cells arranged in a form of _________ anastomosing cords, with a few fine connective tissue fibers.

Spheroidal. Pale. Irregular.

122

Islets of Langerhans are more abundant in the ________. The secretion is released into the _______ where it has access to the bloodstream. By special methods, there are _____ types distinguished.

Tail of pancreas. Interstitium. Six.

123

Principal Cells of the Islets of Langerhans

Beta cells, Alpha cells & Delta cells "BAD"

124

Secrete somatostatin

Delta cells

125

Secrete insulin

Beta cells

126

Secrete glucagon

Alpha cells

127

Alpha cells tend to be at the ______ of the islet.

Periphery.

128

Are the predominant type distributed throughout the islet, comprising 60% to 90% of its mass.

Beta cells

129

Are the least abundant occuring anywhere in the islet.

Delta cells

130

In Islet of Langerhans, The hormones secreted by the three principal types are involved in the control of level of

Blood glucose

131

When glucose levels rise too high, the _______ release ______, which lower it.

Beta cells. Insulin.

132

When the sugar falls below the optimal level, the ______ secrete ______, which raises blood sugar.

Alpha cells. Glucagon.

133

The ________ produced by the ________ is capable of suppressing the secretion of insulin and glucagon and modulate the activity of the Alpha & Beta cells to maintain normal glucose levels.

Somatostatin. Delta cells

134

Thick fibrous capsule of the testes

Tunica albuginea

135

Thin fibrous septa, ________, extend radially dividing the organ into compartments, the ________.

Septula testis. Lobuli testis.

136

Is a compound tubular gland enclosed in a thick fibrous capsule, the tunica albuginea.

Testes

137

In the testes, each lobule is composed of one to four _____________, which constitute to the ______ of the testis.

Convoluted seminiferous tubules. Exocrine.

138

Is an endocrine component of the testis. These are lovated in the interstices between the seminiferous tubules. The cells occur in various group sizes. Small blood vessels are usually present.

Leydig cells

139

Shape & size of the Leydig cells

Large and ovoid. Polygonal.

140

Nucleus of Leydig cells

Large eccentric nucleus

141

Cytoplasm of Leydig cells

Granular acidophilic cytoplasm.

142

Leydig cells are located where

Peripherally vacuolated

143

The Leydig cells synthesize

Testosterone

144

In the testes, the ultrastructure typifies that of ___________ which have extensive smooth endoplasmic reticula.

Steroid secreting cells

145

Peculiar to human, is a variable number of proteinaceous crystals,

Reinke's crystals

146

Are slightly flattened, ovoid, paired organs suspended on either side of the uterus

Ovaries

147

Ovary has two zones

Medulla and Cortex

148

A broad outer zone of the ovaries

Cortex

149

A central deeper zone of the ovaries

Medulla

150

The cortex of the ovaries consists of a ______, ______ connective tissue in which are scattered the characteristic epithelial structures of the ovary, the _______ in different stages of growth and degeneration.

Compact. Cellular. Ovarian follicles.

151

As the follicles increase in size, the ______ differentiates into a highly vascular inner layer of secretory cells.

Theca folliculi

152

In ovaries, secretes estrogen

Theca interna

153

In ovaries, an outer layer that is composed mainly of connective tissue

Theca externa

154

Following ______, the follicular wall collapses and its' ______ cell lining is thrown into folds. There is extravasation of blood from the capillaries of the theca interna, resulting in _______.

Ovulation. Granulosa cell. Central clot.

155

The theca interna and granulosa cells then enlarge and accumulate lipid and are transformed into plump, pale staining polygonal cells, the _________. These structure is now called ______.

Lutein cells. Corpus luteum.

156

Staining of Lutein cells

Pale staining

157

Shape of Lutein cells

Polygonal

158

The development of theca interna cells of the ovary is from the secondary cortical cords from the proliferation of cells in the

Stroma ovarii

159

In ovaries, Whar are the two kinds of Lutein cells

Granulosa Lutein cells & Theca Lutein cells

160

Size & Staining of Theca Lutein cells

Smaller and darker stained

161

Size of the Granulosa Lutein cells

Larger

162

Kind of Lutein cells which secrete progesterone

Granulosa Lutein cells

163

Kind of Lutein cells which secrete small amount of estrogen

Theca Lutein cells

164

Other organs with endocrine function

Placenta, Fat & Kidney "PFK"

165

In the placenta, the _______ of the chorionic villi secrete _________.

Syncitiotrophoblast. Human chorionic gonadortropic hormone (HCG)

166

Is a special type of connective tissue in which fat cells predominate.

Adipose tissue

167

Are found isolated in all loose connective tissue, but in certain places they are present in such large numbers and have such organization as to justify the designation of adipose tissue.

Fat cells

168

Adipose cells are _____, ____ or ____ shaped cells, whose cytoplasm is displaced to the _______ region of the cell by the presence of a single large fat droplet.

Large, oval or spherical. Peripheral.

169

The nucleus of adipose cells is ______ and surrounded by a small amount of cytoplasm in the _______ giving a characteristic "________" appearance.

Flattened. Periphery. Signet ring.

170

The principal functions of adipose tissue are

Storage of fat, Insulation against heat loss & Mechanical support im certain body regions "SIM"

171

Two types of adipose tissue

Brown adipose tissue & Yellow/White adipose tissue

172

Comprise the bulk of the body fat. It is an adult fat or mature form of adipose tissue from which ranges in color from white to dark yellow.

Yellow/White adipose tissue

173

This type of adipose tissue is a fetal fat or immature form of adipose tissue. Its' color ranges from tan to reddish brown.

Brown adipose tissue

174

The adipose cell contains a single large fat droplet in the cytoplasm. It is unilocular as to morphology.

Yellow/White adipose tissue

175

This type is found in the subcutaneous tissue of skin, omentum, mesenteries and retroperitoneal fat.

Yellow/White adipose tissue

176

Its' cell contains multiple lipid droplets in the cytoplasm; hence, it is multilocular in morphology.

Brown adipose tissue

177

Found in the intercapsular and inguinal regions of the newborn

Brown adipose tissue

178

On one side of the wall of the afferent arteriole at the vascular pole becomes transformed into modified smooth muscle cells called

Juxtaglomerular cells

179

Staining of the cytoplasm of JG cells. Their specific granules are clearly demonstrated.

Basophilic

180

In electron microscopy of secretory granules of JG cells shows that cells are variable in shape and membrane bounded with an __________ structure.

Internal crystalline

181

JG cells secrete

Renin

182

Activated by Renin will lead to

Conversion of Angiotensinogen into Angiotensin I

183

Potent vasoconstrictor, increasing BP.

Angiotensin II

184

Inactive but is converted in the lungs to A2

Angiotensin I

185

These cells are formed at one angle between the efferent and afferent arteriole at the vascular pole.

Lacis cells/Extraglomerular mesangial cells

186

Lacis cell produces

Erythropoietin

187

Other name for Mesangial/Lacis cells

Polar cushion/Polkissens cells

188

A hormone that stimulates erythropoiesis in the bone marrow

Erythropoietin

189

Hypersecretiom of GH during childhood

Gigantism

190

Hyposecretiom of GH by the adenohypophysis

Pituitary dwarfism

191

Hypersecretiom of GH during adulthood

Acromegaly

192

Hyposecretion of ADH caused by damage to the neurohypophysis or the supraoptic nucleus

Diabetes Insipidus

193

A heterogenous group of diseases, all of which lead to an elevation of blood sugar and excretion of glucose in the urine.

Diabetes Mellitus

194

Hyposecretion of thyroid hormones during growth years.

Cretinism

195

Two clinical manifestations of cretinism are

Dwarfism & Mental retardation

196

Hypothyroidism during adulthood. Hallmark of this disorder is an ______ that causes the facial tissues to swell and look puffy.

Myxedema. Edema.

197

Hyperthyroidism during adult life. This gives rise to __________.

Grave's disease. Exopthalmic goiter.

198

Muscle twitches or spasm and convulsions as a result of hypoparathyroidism (deficiency in calcium)

Tetany

199

Hyperparathyroidism that causes demineralization of bone

Osteitis fibrosa cystica

200

Hypersecretion of the mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, characterized by a decrease in the body's _______ secretion.

Aldosteronism. Potassium.

201

Primary adrenal insufficiency that results in hyposecretion of glucocorticoids. Clinical manifestations include lethargy, weight loss and hypoglycemia, which leads to muscular weakness.

Addison's disease

202

Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids, especially cortisol and cortisone. Clinical manifestations include moon face, buffalo hump on the back and pendulous abdomen.

Cushing's syndrome

203

Tumor of the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, causes hypersecretion of the medullary hormones.m

Pheochromocytoma