Flashcards in Urinary System(book Based) Deck (103)
A protease that participates in the regulation of BP by cleaving circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
A glycoprotein that stimulates the production of erythrocytes. And is also produced in the kidneys
Active form of the Vitamin D which is involved in the regulation of calcium balance
Calcitriol( 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3)
The initial site of production of steroid prohormone Vitamin D
Hydroxylation of steroid prohormone Vitamin D occurs where?
It connects the primitive mesonephros to the cloaca and serves as the anlage for certain male reproductive organs.
A concave medial border where nerves enter, ureter exits, and blood and lymph vessels enter and exit.
The expanded upper end of the ureter. Divide into 2 or 3 ________
Renal pelvis, major calyces
Smaller branches, arises from the major calyces
Area surrounding the calyces. Usually contains considerable adipose tissue
Renal medulla consists of 8-15 conical structures called
Renal pyramids are separated by cortical extensions called
Renal columns of Bertini
Each renal pyramid plus the cortical tissue at its base and along its sides costitutes
Functional unit of kidney
Major division of a nephron, An initial dilated portion of the cortex.
Major division of a nephron, located primarily in the cortex
Major division of a nephron, descends into the medulla, then ascend back to the cortex
Thin & thick limbs of the Loop of Henle
Collecting tubules from several nephrons converge into _________ which carry urine to the calyces and the ureter.
Located almost completely at the cortex. Short loops.
Close to the medulla have long loops in the medulla. Long loops.
Renal blood circulation
Renal artery-segmental artery-interlobar artery-arcuate artery-interlobular artery-afferent arteriole-glomerulus-efferent arterioles-peritubular capillary(vasa recta)-interlobular veins-arcuate veins-interlobar veins-renal veins
This divides into two or three segmental arteries at the hilum
In the renal sinus, branches to form this. Extending between the renal pyramids toward the corticomedullary junction.
Travel in the arc along corticomedullary junction at the base of each renal pyramid
Branch off at right angles from the arcuate arteries and enter the cortex
________,a microvascular vessel,that supplies blood to a tuft of capillaries called the ________.
Afferent arteriole, glomerulos
Blood leaves the glomerular capillaries via
A capillary network that nourish cells of the proximal and distal tubules and carry away reabsorbed substances
Small medullary vessels and their intervening capillary plexuses comprise this
Vasa recta; straight BVs
Found at the beginning of a nephron
The glomerulus is surrounded by a double-walled epithelial capsule known as
The layer of the capsule that envelops the glomerular capillaries closely
Layer that forms the outer surface of the capsule
Between the two capsular layers, which receives the fluid filtered through the capillary wall and the visceral layer
Each renal corpuscle has _______, where the PCT begins.
Lining epithelium of the parietal layer of glomerular capsule. And supported externally by _________ and a thin layer of __________
Simple squamous epithelium, basal lamina, reticular fibers
Lining epithelium of the tubular pole
Simple cuboidal epithelium
The cells of parietal layer, _______, have a cell body from which arise several _________.
Podocytes, primary processes
Each primary processes gives rise to numerous _________, that embrace a portion of one glomerular capillary.
Secondary (foot) processes or pedicels
Has a direct contact with the basement membrane unlike the cell bodies of the podocytes
The pedicels interdigitate, defining elongated spaces 30-40mm wide which doesn't allow protein to pass
_________ are a Highly specialized type of intercellular junction in which the large transmembrane protein _______ is important both structurally and functionally.
Slit diaphragms, nephrins
Interact to form a porous structure within the diaphragm
Most substantial part of the filtration barrier separating the blood in the capillaries from the capsular space. Formed by the fusion of capillary & podocyte-produced basal laminae and is maintained by podocytes
Glomerular basement membrane
Bind integrins of both the podocyte and endothelial cell membranes.
Laminin & fibronectin
Help restrict the passage of cationic molecules
Type IV collagen
Is a selective macromolecular barrier which acts as a physical filter and as a barrier against negatively charged molecules
Indicator of many potential kidney disorder
Found in between afferent & efferent arterioles. This resembles pericytes in producing components of an enveloping external lamina. For physical support & contraction, phagocytosis and secretion.
Simple cuboidal LE. A very tortuous tubule is longer than the DCT.
What is reabsorbed in the PCT?
60-65% of water is filtered, almost all ions, nutrients and vitamins
Water and solutes from the PCT are transferred directly across the tubular wall and immediately taken up by the
The cells of the PCT have _________ cytoplasm because of the presence of numerous __________.
Cell apex has abundant long microvilli which form a prominent ________, for reabsorption.
A U-shaped structure with a descending and ascending limbs
Loop of Henle
Lining epithelium of the Loop of Henle. Near the cortex, ___________ near the medulla, ________
Simple cuboidal, simple squamous
Prime importance in the mechanism that allows the kidney to produce concentrated, hypertonic urine.
Released from the pituitary when when body water is low
The role of the nephron loop and vasa recta in establishing the conditions for urine concentration is called
Countercurrent multiplier effect
LE of Distal convoluted tubules
Simple Cuboidal w/ no brush borders
Regulates the rate of Na absorption & K secretion. From the adrenal glands and is important for the body's water-salt balance
Components of the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
JG cells & macula densa
A specialized structure that establish a feedback mechanism that allows the autoregulation of renal blood flow and keeps the GFR relatively constant
Thickened spot of the distal tubule is called
Smooth muscle cells develop a secretory phenotype with more rounded nuclei, rough ER, Golgi complexes and zymogen granules
Found at the vascular pole. Extraglomerular mesangial cells, which may also transmit signals from the macula densa into the glomerulus, affecting vasoconstriction there
Cleaves the plasma protein angiotensiogen into angiotensin I
A potent vasoconstrictor which directly raises systemic BP and stimulates the adrenal to secrete ________.
Angiotensin II, Aldosterone
Urine passes thru the DCT to ____, the last part of each nephron, which join together to form larger, straight ______ that runs to the tips of the medullary pyramids and empty into the ________.
Collecting tubule, collecting duct, minor calyces
LE of collecting tube
LE of collecting duct
Weakly staining cells. Few organelles and scanty microvilli. For ion transport.
Darker in staining. More abundant mitochindria which help regulate the acid-base balance by secreting H amd absorbing HCO3
In the medulla, this is a major component of the urine-concentrating mechanism
Integral proteins found in most cell membranes that function as selective pores for passage of water molecules
Makes collecting ducts more permeable to water
Urine is transported by
For temporary urine storage
Urine is excreted thru
LE of calyces, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder
Urothelium/stratified transitional epithelium
The only part of the urinary system that do not possess a submucosa
Three layers of the Uroepithelium
-single layer of small basal cells
A superficial layer of very large, polyhedral or bulbous cells w/c are occasionally bi or multinucleated and are highly differentiated to protect underlying cells against cytotoxic effects of hypertonic urine
Umbrella cells are well developed in what site?
Most of the apical surface consists of _________, in which regions of the outer lipid layer appears twice as thick as the inner leaflet. These region are lipid rafts containing mostly integral membrane proteins called ______ w/c assemble into paracrystalline arrays of stiffened plaques 6nm in diameter.
Asymmetric unit membrane, Uroplakins
The bladders _______ and _______ of the submucosa are highly vascularized
Lamina propia, DICT
The muscularis consists of three poorly delineate layers, collectively called as _______. This contract to empty the bladder.
A tube that carries the urine from the bladder to the exterior
The urethral mucosa has a _________, giving it a distinctive appearance in cross section.
Large longitudinal folds
Three segments of the male urethra
Prostatic, membranous & spongy/penile urethras
3-4cm long, extends through the prostate gland and is lined by _______.
Prostatic urethra, urothelium
Shortest segment of the male urethra, passes through an internal sphincter of striated muscle and is lined by ______ & ______ epithelium
Membranous urethra, stratified columnar & Pseudostratified
A sagittal section of a renal papilla shows numerous collecting ducts(sometimes called as ______ at this level of the pyramid) converging at the end of the renal papilla where they empty into the minor calyx
Ducts of Bellini
15cm in length, enclosed within erectile tissue of the penis and is lined by _______, with _______distally.
Penile/spongy urethra, Pseudostratified columnar, stratified squamous epithelium
In women, it is exclusively a urinary organ. A tube 4 to 5 cm long, lined initially with _______, then by ________ and some areas of _________.
Urethra, transitional, stratified squamous, pseudostratified columnar epithelium
The middle part of the female urethra is surrounded by the
External striated muscle sphincter
A muscular sac that is expandable as it fills with urine. Thickest layer of smooth muscle
When bladder is empty, how many layers does it contain?
When bladder is full, how many layes does it contain?
Paraurethral gland is AKA