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Flashcards in Urinary System(book Based) Deck (103)
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A protease that participates in the regulation of BP by cleaving circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

Renin

1

A glycoprotein that stimulates the production of erythrocytes. And is also produced in the kidneys

Eryhtropoietin

2

Active form of the Vitamin D which is involved in the regulation of calcium balance

Calcitriol( 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3)

3

The initial site of production of steroid prohormone Vitamin D

Skin keratinocytes

4

Hydroxylation of steroid prohormone Vitamin D occurs where?

Kidney

5

It connects the primitive mesonephros to the cloaca and serves as the anlage for certain male reproductive organs.

Wolffian duct

6

A concave medial border where nerves enter, ureter exits, and blood and lymph vessels enter and exit.

Hilum

7

The expanded upper end of the ureter. Divide into 2 or 3 ________

Renal pelvis, major calyces

8

Smaller branches, arises from the major calyces

Minor calyces

9

Area surrounding the calyces. Usually contains considerable adipose tissue

Renal sinus

10

Renal medulla consists of 8-15 conical structures called

Renal pyramids

11

Renal pyramids are separated by cortical extensions called

Renal columns of Bertini

12

Each renal pyramid plus the cortical tissue at its base and along its sides costitutes

Renal lobe

13

Functional unit of kidney

Nephrons

14

Major division of a nephron, An initial dilated portion of the cortex.

Renal corpuscle

15

Major division of a nephron, located primarily in the cortex

PCT

16

Major division of a nephron, descends into the medulla, then ascend back to the cortex

Thin & thick limbs of the Loop of Henle

17

Collecting tubules from several nephrons converge into _________ which carry urine to the calyces and the ureter.

Collecting ducts

18

Located almost completely at the cortex. Short loops.

Cortical nephron

19

Close to the medulla have long loops in the medulla. Long loops.

Juxtamedullary nephrons

20

Renal blood circulation

Renal artery-segmental artery-interlobar artery-arcuate artery-interlobular artery-afferent arteriole-glomerulus-efferent arterioles-peritubular capillary(vasa recta)-interlobular veins-arcuate veins-interlobar veins-renal veins

21

This divides into two or three segmental arteries at the hilum

Renal artery

22

In the renal sinus, branches to form this. Extending between the renal pyramids toward the corticomedullary junction.

Interlobar arteries

23

Travel in the arc along corticomedullary junction at the base of each renal pyramid

Arcuate artery

24

Branch off at right angles from the arcuate arteries and enter the cortex

Interlobular arteries

25

________,a microvascular vessel,that supplies blood to a tuft of capillaries called the ________.

Afferent arteriole, glomerulos

26

Blood leaves the glomerular capillaries via

Efferent arteriole

27

A capillary network that nourish cells of the proximal and distal tubules and carry away reabsorbed substances

Peritubular capillaries

28

Small medullary vessels and their intervening capillary plexuses comprise this

Vasa recta; straight BVs

29

Found at the beginning of a nephron

Renal corpuscle

30

The glomerulus is surrounded by a double-walled epithelial capsule known as

Glomerular(Bowman's) capsule

31

The layer of the capsule that envelops the glomerular capillaries closely

Visceral layer

32

Layer that forms the outer surface of the capsule

Parietal layer

33

Normal GFR

125ml/min

34

Between the two capsular layers, which receives the fluid filtered through the capillary wall and the visceral layer

Urinary/Capsular space

35

Each renal corpuscle has _______, where the PCT begins.

Urinary/tubular pole

36

Lining epithelium of the parietal layer of glomerular capsule. And supported externally by _________ and a thin layer of __________

Simple squamous epithelium, basal lamina, reticular fibers

37

Lining epithelium of the tubular pole

Simple cuboidal epithelium

38

The cells of parietal layer, _______, have a cell body from which arise several _________.

Podocytes, primary processes

39

Each primary processes gives rise to numerous _________, that embrace a portion of one glomerular capillary.

Secondary (foot) processes or pedicels

40

Has a direct contact with the basement membrane unlike the cell bodies of the podocytes

Pedicels

41

The pedicels interdigitate, defining elongated spaces 30-40mm wide which doesn't allow protein to pass

Filtration slits

42

_________ are a Highly specialized type of intercellular junction in which the large transmembrane protein _______ is important both structurally and functionally.

Slit diaphragms, nephrins

43

Interact to form a porous structure within the diaphragm

Nephrin

44

Most substantial part of the filtration barrier separating the blood in the capillaries from the capsular space. Formed by the fusion of capillary & podocyte-produced basal laminae and is maintained by podocytes

Glomerular basement membrane

45

Bind integrins of both the podocyte and endothelial cell membranes.

Laminin & fibronectin

46

Help restrict the passage of cationic molecules

Type IV collagen

47

Is a selective macromolecular barrier which acts as a physical filter and as a barrier against negatively charged molecules

GBM

48

Indicator of many potential kidney disorder

Proteinuria

49

Found in between afferent & efferent arterioles. This resembles pericytes in producing components of an enveloping external lamina. For physical support & contraction, phagocytosis and secretion.

Mesangial cells

50

Simple cuboidal LE. A very tortuous tubule is longer than the DCT.

PCT

51

What is reabsorbed in the PCT?

60-65% of water is filtered, almost all ions, nutrients and vitamins

52

Water and solutes from the PCT are transferred directly across the tubular wall and immediately taken up by the

peritubular capillaries

53

The cells of the PCT have _________ cytoplasm because of the presence of numerous __________.

Acidophilic, mitochondria

54

Cell apex has abundant long microvilli which form a prominent ________, for reabsorption.

Brush border

55

A U-shaped structure with a descending and ascending limbs

Loop of Henle

56

Lining epithelium of the Loop of Henle. Near the cortex, ___________ near the medulla, ________

Simple cuboidal, simple squamous

57

Prime importance in the mechanism that allows the kidney to produce concentrated, hypertonic urine.

Juxtamedullary nephrons

58

Released from the pituitary when when body water is low

ADH

59

The role of the nephron loop and vasa recta in establishing the conditions for urine concentration is called

Countercurrent multiplier effect

60

LE of Distal convoluted tubules

Simple Cuboidal w/ no brush borders

61

Regulates the rate of Na absorption & K secretion. From the adrenal glands and is important for the body's water-salt balance

Aldosterone

62

Components of the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

JG cells & macula densa

63

A specialized structure that establish a feedback mechanism that allows the autoregulation of renal blood flow and keeps the GFR relatively constant

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

64

Thickened spot of the distal tubule is called

Macula densa

65

Smooth muscle cells develop a secretory phenotype with more rounded nuclei, rough ER, Golgi complexes and zymogen granules

JG cells

66

Found at the vascular pole. Extraglomerular mesangial cells, which may also transmit signals from the macula densa into the glomerulus, affecting vasoconstriction there

Lacis cells

67

Cleaves the plasma protein angiotensiogen into angiotensin I

Renin

68

A potent vasoconstrictor which directly raises systemic BP and stimulates the adrenal to secrete ________.

Angiotensin II, Aldosterone

69

Urine passes thru the DCT to ____, the last part of each nephron, which join together to form larger, straight ______ that runs to the tips of the medullary pyramids and empty into the ________.

Collecting tubule, collecting duct, minor calyces

70

LE of collecting tube

Cuboidal epithelium

71

LE of collecting duct

Simple columnar

72

Weakly staining cells. Few organelles and scanty microvilli. For ion transport.

Principal cells

73

Darker in staining. More abundant mitochindria which help regulate the acid-base balance by secreting H amd absorbing HCO3

Intercalated cells

74

In the medulla, this is a major component of the urine-concentrating mechanism

Collecting ducts

75

Integral proteins found in most cell membranes that function as selective pores for passage of water molecules

Aquaporins

76

Makes collecting ducts more permeable to water

ADH

77

Urine is transported by

Ureters

78

For temporary urine storage

Urinary bladder

79

Urine is excreted thru

Urethra

80

LE of calyces, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder

Urothelium/stratified transitional epithelium

81

The only part of the urinary system that do not possess a submucosa

Ureters

82

Three layers of the Uroepithelium

-single layer of small basal cells
-intermediate region
-umbrella cells

83

A superficial layer of very large, polyhedral or bulbous cells w/c are occasionally bi or multinucleated and are highly differentiated to protect underlying cells against cytotoxic effects of hypertonic urine

Umbrella cells

84

Umbrella cells are well developed in what site?

Bladder

85

Most of the apical surface consists of _________, in which regions of the outer lipid layer appears twice as thick as the inner leaflet. These region are lipid rafts containing mostly integral membrane proteins called ______ w/c assemble into paracrystalline arrays of stiffened plaques 6nm in diameter.

Asymmetric unit membrane, Uroplakins

86

The bladders _______ and _______ of the submucosa are highly vascularized

Lamina propia, DICT

87

The muscularis consists of three poorly delineate layers, collectively called as _______. This contract to empty the bladder.

Detrusor muscle

88

A tube that carries the urine from the bladder to the exterior

Urethra

89

The urethral mucosa has a _________, giving it a distinctive appearance in cross section.

Large longitudinal folds

90

Three segments of the male urethra

Prostatic, membranous & spongy/penile urethras

91

3-4cm long, extends through the prostate gland and is lined by _______.

Prostatic urethra, urothelium

92

Shortest segment of the male urethra, passes through an internal sphincter of striated muscle and is lined by ______ & ______ epithelium

Membranous urethra, stratified columnar & Pseudostratified

93

A sagittal section of a renal papilla shows numerous collecting ducts(sometimes called as ______ at this level of the pyramid) converging at the end of the renal papilla where they empty into the minor calyx

Ducts of Bellini

94

15cm in length, enclosed within erectile tissue of the penis and is lined by _______, with _______distally.

Penile/spongy urethra, Pseudostratified columnar, stratified squamous epithelium

95

In women, it is exclusively a urinary organ. A tube 4 to 5 cm long, lined initially with _______, then by ________ and some areas of _________.

Urethra, transitional, stratified squamous, pseudostratified columnar epithelium

96

The middle part of the female urethra is surrounded by the

External striated muscle sphincter

97

A muscular sac that is expandable as it fills with urine. Thickest layer of smooth muscle

Urinary bladder

98

When bladder is empty, how many layers does it contain?

3-5 layers

99

When bladder is full, how many layes does it contain?

1-2

100

Bladder capacity

500-800mL

101

Paraurethral gland is AKA

Littre gland

102

Maximum volume of urine that you start to feel the urge

150mL