Flashcards in Repro: Male Deck (119)
Consists of testes, genital ducts, accessory gland and penis.
Male Reproductive System
For production of hormones and spermatozoa
Main male reproductive hormone. Important for spermatogenesis. Sexual differentiation during embryonic and fetal development. Control of gonadotropin secretion.
Male Reproductive Hormones
Acts on many organs during puberty & adulthood
Produce secretions. Nutrients for spermatozoa. Propel spermatozoa outside.
Genital ducts and accessory gland
Capsule of DCT that surrounds the testes. Thickened on the posterior side of the testes. Forms mediastinum of the testes.
Occupied by one to four semineferous tubule
Penetrate the organ and divides it into testicular lobules, _________.
Mediastinum testes. Pyramidal compartments.
Surrounded by interstitial LCT rich in blood & lymphatic vessels, nerves & endocrine interstitial cells of Leydig. Produce spermatozoa.
Secrete testosterone and androgens
Testes develop retroperitoneally in ________ of embryonic cavity. Suspended within two sides of scrotum at ends of _________. Carries with it a serous sac.
Dorsal wall. Spermatic cords.
Serous sac derived from peritoneum which consist if two layers.
Layer of tunica vaginalis that covers the tunica albuginea on anterior and lateral side
Inner visceral layer
Layer of tunica vaginalis that lines scrotum
Outer parietal layer
Important in the regulation of spermatogenesis
Temperature: below core body temperature of ____. Testicular temperature of _____ maintained by ______.
37'C. 34'C. Scrotal sac.
Surrounds each testicular artery. With cooler blood from testes. Can draw heat from arterial blood by a ____________.
Pampiniform venous plexus. Countercurrent heat-exchange system.
Relaxation or Contraction of these moves testes away from/closer to the body
Dartos muscle(scrotum) & Cremaster muscle(spermatic cords)
Failure of descent of testes in scrotum. Maintains testes at core body temperature. Inhibits spermatogenesis.
Produces sperm 2x10 to the 8th per day. Convoluted loop linked via __________ to the Rete testis. Has two types of cells.
Seminiferous tubules. Straight tubule.
Labyrinth of epithelium lined channels embedded in Mediastinum testes
Short, narrow segment.
Connect rete testis to head of epididymis
Seminiferous tubules are lined by
Complex stratified epithelium or Germinal/Seminiferous Epithelium
Flattened. Smooth muscle like cells. Allow weak contractions of the tubule.
Basement membrane of Seminiferous tubule is covered by ________ w/ innermost layer _______.
Fibrous CT. Myoid cells.
Occurs in the CT of the seminiferous tubules
Nondividing cell. Produces inhibin.
Proliferative. Comprise 4-8 concentric cell layers. Produce cells that become sperm.
Begins at puberty
Spermatogenesis 1: primitive germ cell. Relatively small _____ cell. Located ______ in epithelium next to BM. different stages recognized by shape & staining properties of their nuclei.
Spermatogonium. Round. Basally.
Spermatogenesis 2: spermatogonia with ________ nuclei. Divides infrequently. Gives rise to SC & PC.
Stem cell. Dark ovoid.
Spermatogenesis 3: ______ staining ovoid nuclei and divide more rapidly.
Progenitor cell. Pale staining.
Spermatogenesis 4: undergo clonal divisions. Remains interconnected as a _________. Forms Type B Spermatogonia.
Type A Spermatogonia. Syncytium.
Spermatogenesis 5: formed by Type A Spermatogonia. Have more ______ nuclei. Undergoes final _______ division. Produce ________.
Type B Spermatogonia. Spherical. Mitotic. 1' Spermatocyte.
Spermatogenesis 6: spherical, euchromatic nuclei, replicate their DNA, each chromosome consist of duplicate chromatids (_______) DNA=____, largest cells of spermatogenic lineage. Presence of partially condensed chromosomes.
Primary spermatocyte. Diploid. 4N.
Conversion from primary spermatocyte to secondary spermatocyte
1st meiotic division
Spermatogenesis 7: 23 chromosomes, 2 chromatids, DNA= ___, rare, short-lived & remain in ________ only brief then enters ________.
2' Spermatocyte. 2N. Interphase. Second meiotic division.
Spermatogenesis 8: due to conversion of 2' Spermatocyte thru 2nd meiotic division. Haploid cells (2), 23 chromosomes. 1N= no ________ (DNA replication) occurs between 1st & 2nd meiotic division.
Spermatids. S phase.
Divides into progenitor cells & stem cells
Type A Spermatogonia
Remain as separate cells
Have increase cytokines __________. Cells attached to one another by Intercellular bridges of cytoplasm.
Progenitor cells. After telophase.
Cells remain linked through period of meiosis
Allows free communication among cells derived from a single type A spermatogonia. Allows developing spermatid to share the cytoplasm of neighboring cells. Coordinate division & differentiation.
Intercellular bridges of Cytoplasm
Final stage in sperm production. No cell division.
In Spermiogenesis: spermatids transform in
In Spermiogenesis: highly specialized to deliver male DNA to the ovum. ______ size and _______ nuclei. Highly condensed chromatin. Located near the lumen of the seminiferous tubule.
Spermatozoa. Small. Haploid.
In Spermiogenesis: includes formation of _______. Condensation & elongation of _________. Development of ________. Loss of much of the _________.
Acrosome. Nucleus. Flagellum. Cytoplasm.
In Spermiogenesis: end result is
Three phases of spermiogenesis
Early Golgi, Acrosome & Maturation Phases
In Spermiogenesis: Cytoplasm of spermatids contains prominent golgi apparatus near the nucleus. With mitochodria, pair of centrioles, free ribosomes and tubules of smooth ER.
Early Golgi Phase
In Spermiogenesis: accumulate in the GA. Coalesce to form a sungle membrane limited ___________.
Small proacrosomal vesicles. Acrosomal cap.
In Spermiogenesis: migrate to a position near the cell surface and opposite the forming acrosome
In Spermiogenesis: Acrosomal cap/Acrosome spreads to cover about half of the condensing nucleus. Nuclei become more elongated. Highly condensed chromatin. Histones of nucleosome replaced by protamines.
In Spermiogenesis: Specialized type of lysosome which contains hydrolytic enzymes, hyaluronidase, neuraminidase, acid phosphatase & trypsin-like protease.
In Spermiogenesis: enzymes relevant when sperm encounter an oocyte.
In Spermiogenesis: trypsin like protease
In Spermiogenesis: acrosome dissociate cells of corona radiata and digest the zona pellucida.
In Spermiogenesis: Small basic peptides
In Spermiogenesis: thickened region. Continued growth of flagella & aggregation of mitochondria around proximal part where ATP for flagellar movement is generated.
In Spermiogenesis: residual body, unneeded cytoplasm shed off and phagocytosed by _______.
Maturation phase. Sertoli cells.
In Spermiogenesis: immotile spermatozoa & consequent fertility. Caused by lack of ______ or other proteins for ciliar & flagellar motility. Coincides with chronic _______ infections. Impaired motility of ciliary _______.
Immotile Cilia Syndrome. Dynein. Respiratory. Axonemes.
Columnar/Pyramidal. Largely envelope cell of spermatogenic lineage. Supporting/Nurse cells. Bases adhere to _________. Apical ends extend to lumen of ____________. Support __________. Contains abundant SER, some RER, well developed Golgi complex and numerous mitochondria lysosomes.
Sertoli cells. Basal lamina. Seminiferous tubules. 30-50 germ cells.
Sertoli cells has an ______ nucleus. Can be _______. Has infoldings, prominent nucleolus and very little heterochromatin.
Formed by elaborate tight occluding junctions between basolateral membranes of adjacent Sertoli cells. In seminiferous tubules epithelium. Tightest blood tissue barrier. Prevents autoimmune attack against unique spermatogenic cells.
Lie on Basal compartment. Below junctions. Open to vascularized component (lymphocytes, APCS)
For endocrine & exocrine secretion. Support, protection & nutrition of developing spermatogenic cells. And for phagocytosis.
Iron transport protein
Concentrates testosterone to a level required for spermiogenesis. Promoted by FSH.
Androgen Binding Protein (ABP)
Glycoprotein that suppresses the synthesis & release of FSH.
Cause regression of embryonic Mullerian/Paramesonephric ducts.
Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS)
Site of androgen production. Spaces between seminiferous tubules are filled with CT that contains mast cells, macrophages, nerves and fenestrated capillaries BV.
Promoted by LH/ICSH. Produces testosterone. Rounded/Polygonal. Central nuclei. Eosinophilic cytoplasm which is rich in small lipid droplets.
For development of secondary male characteristic. Synthesize by enzyme present in mitochondria & SER.
Carry spermatozoa & liquid from straight tubules to ducts of epididymis. Form of loops, both ends joins rete testis by straight tubules. Gradual loss of spermatogenic cells.
Interconnected network of channels lined with _________ epithelium. Channels are embedded w/in CT of mediastinum. Drains to efferent ductules.
Rete testis. Simple cuboidal.
Components of the Intratesticular ducts
Rete Testis, Efferent ductules & Tubuli Recti (straight tubules) "RET"
Lined by unusual epithelium w/ groups of nonciliated _______ cells alternating with groups of _________ cells. ________ appearance of epithelium. Empty into the ductus epididymis.
Efferent ductules. Cuboidal. Taller ciliated. Scalloped.
Absorb most of the fluid
Non ciliated cells
Transport sperm from epididymis to penis during ejaculation
Excretory Genital ducts
Components of the Excretory Genital ducts
Ductus/Vas deferens, Urethra & Epididymis " DUE"
Singly high coiled tube. Forms the head, body and tail. Lies along superior & posterior sides of each testis where sperm are stored. Attain final characteristics including motility membrane receptors for ___________ proteins, maturation of ________ and ability to ________.
Duct of Epididymis. Zona pellucida. Acrosome. Fertilize.
Lining epithelium of the epididymis is ______________ with round _______ & _______ cells w/ long ________ microvilli.
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium. Basal cells. Columnar. branched irregular.
Absorb water . Participate in uptake & digestion of residual bodies. Peristaltic contractions move the sperm.
Long branched irregular microvilli
Long straight tubule. Thick muscular wall that is continuous toward prostatic urethra & empties to its narrow lumen and a thick layer of SM. Mucosa is folded _________.
Ductus Deferens. Longitudinally.
Lining epithelium of Ductus Deferens
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium w/ sparse Stereocili
Lamina propia of Ductus Deferens is rich in _________. Has a very thick muscularis _________ longitudinal and _________ circular. Peristaltic contractions.
Elastic fibers. Inner & Outer. Middle.
Ductus deferens forms a part of ___________. Testicular artery, pampiniform plexus and nerves.
Ductus deferens dilates to form _______ after passing over UB. Epithelium is thicker & more extensively folded. At final portion, ________ join the duct.
Ampulla. Seminal vesicle.
Ductus deferens enters ______ then to ________.
Prostate gland. Prostatic urethra.
Segment entering the prostate
Disappears beyond the ampulla
Produce secretions that are added to sperm during ejaculation.
Accessory glands components
Bulbourethral glands, Seminal vesicle & Prostate gland "BSP"
Consist of highly turtuous tubes. Unusual mucosa has numerous thin, complex folds that fills most of the lumen.
Folds of the seminal vesicles lined with ______________ rich in ________ granules.
Simple/Pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells. Secretory.
Lamina propia of seminal vesicle contains _______ surrounded by SM with ________ circular & ________ longitudinal. Has an exocrine gland. Activity depend on levels of _________.
Elastic fibers. Inner. Outer. Testosterone.
Produces a viscid, yellowish secretion containing fructose, citrate, inositol, prostaglandin, fibrinogen, enzyme & proteins. Make up ___% of the ejaculate provide nutrient energy sources. Coagulate semen after ejaculation affect activity of female reproductive tract.
Exocrine gland of the seminal vesicles. 70.
Dense organ surrounding the urethra below UB. Collection of 30-50 __________ glands. Surrounded by a dense fibromuscular stroma covered by a ________.
Prostate. Branched tubuloalveolar glands. Capsule.
Prostage gland is arranged in concentric layers around urethra. Inner layer of _______, intermediate layer of _______ & peripheral layer of _________. All empty in the _________.
Mucosal glands. Submucosal glands. Prostate's main gland. Prostatic Urethra.
Prostate gland has ______ zones.
5% prostate volume. Surrounds prostatic urethra. Contains mucosal glands.
25%. Contains submucosal glands with longer ducts.
70% contains main glands with longer ducts.
Most common location of inflammation and cancer.
Main gland of prostate
In Prostate, LE of tubuloalveolar glands is ______________. Produce __________ containing glycoprotein and enzyme. Surrounded by fibromuscular stroma and fibroelastic capsule. Structure function depends on level of _________.
Simple/Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium. Prostatic fluid. Testosterone.
Small, spherical, calcified concretions. Lumen of prostatic glands. Contains deposited glycoproteins. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans known as __________.
Corpora amylacea/Prostatic concretions
Located in urogenital diaphragm. Empty into proximal part of penile urethra. Has several lobules with tubuloalveolar secretory units.
Cowper's gland is lined by ______________ dependent on testosterone. Septa between lobules contain SM cells. During erection, release a clear mucus like secretion containing small carbs. Coats plus lubricates urethral lining.
Mucus-secreting simple columnar epithelium
Three cylindrical mass of the penis
2 corpora cavernosa & corpus spongiosum
Cylindrical mass that is ventrally located & surrounds urethra. Expands and forms ______.
Corpus spongiosum. Glans.
Cylindrical mass placed dorsally
2 corpora cavernosa
LE of Penile Urethra
Pseudostratified squamous epithelium
Glands found in penile urethra which has small mucus secretion
Gland of Littre/Urethral glands
Penis is covered by a retractile fold of thin skin with sebaceous glands