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Flashcards in Repro: Male Deck (119)
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Consists of testes, genital ducts, accessory gland and penis.

Male Reproductive System

1

For production of hormones and spermatozoa

Testes

2

Main male reproductive hormone. Important for spermatogenesis. Sexual differentiation during embryonic and fetal development. Control of gonadotropin secretion.

Testosterone

3

Male Reproductive Hormones

Testosterone& Dihydrotestosterone

4

Acts on many organs during puberty & adulthood

DHAT

5

Produce secretions. Nutrients for spermatozoa. Propel spermatozoa outside.

Genital ducts and accessory gland

6

Capsule of DCT that surrounds the testes. Thickened on the posterior side of the testes. Forms mediastinum of the testes.

Tunica albuginea

7

Occupied by one to four semineferous tubule

Lobules

8

Penetrate the organ and divides it into testicular lobules, _________.

Mediastinum testes. Pyramidal compartments.

9

Surrounded by interstitial LCT rich in blood & lymphatic vessels, nerves & endocrine interstitial cells of Leydig. Produce spermatozoa.

Semineferous tubules

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Secrete testosterone and androgens

Leydig cells

11

Testes develop retroperitoneally in ________ of embryonic cavity. Suspended within two sides of scrotum at ends of _________. Carries with it a serous sac.

Dorsal wall. Spermatic cords.

12

Serous sac derived from peritoneum which consist if two layers.

Tunica vaginalis

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Layer of tunica vaginalis that covers the tunica albuginea on anterior and lateral side

Inner visceral layer

14

Layer of tunica vaginalis that lines scrotum

Outer parietal layer

15

Important in the regulation of spermatogenesis

Temperature

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Temperature: below core body temperature of ____. Testicular temperature of _____ maintained by ______.

37'C. 34'C. Scrotal sac.

17

Surrounds each testicular artery. With cooler blood from testes. Can draw heat from arterial blood by a ____________.

Pampiniform venous plexus. Countercurrent heat-exchange system.

18

Relaxation or Contraction of these moves testes away from/closer to the body

Dartos muscle(scrotum) & Cremaster muscle(spermatic cords)

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Failure of descent of testes in scrotum. Maintains testes at core body temperature. Inhibits spermatogenesis.

Cryptorchidism

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Produces sperm 2x10 to the 8th per day. Convoluted loop linked via __________ to the Rete testis. Has two types of cells.

Seminiferous tubules. Straight tubule.

21

Labyrinth of epithelium lined channels embedded in Mediastinum testes

Rete Testis

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Short, narrow segment.

Straight tubule

23

Connect rete testis to head of epididymis

Efferent ductules

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Seminiferous tubules are lined by

Complex stratified epithelium or Germinal/Seminiferous Epithelium

25

Flattened. Smooth muscle like cells. Allow weak contractions of the tubule.

Myoid cells

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Basement membrane of Seminiferous tubule is covered by ________ w/ innermost layer _______.

Fibrous CT. Myoid cells.

27

Occurs in the CT of the seminiferous tubules

Interstitial cells

28

Nondividing cell. Produces inhibin.

Supporting/Sustentacular/Sertoli cells

29

Proliferative. Comprise 4-8 concentric cell layers. Produce cells that become sperm.

Spermatogenic lineage

30

Begins at puberty

Spermatogenesis

31

Spermatogenesis 1: primitive germ cell. Relatively small _____ cell. Located ______ in epithelium next to BM. different stages recognized by shape & staining properties of their nuclei.

Spermatogonium. Round. Basally.

32

Spermatogenesis 2: spermatogonia with ________ nuclei. Divides infrequently. Gives rise to SC & PC.

Stem cell. Dark ovoid.

33

Spermatogenesis 3: ______ staining ovoid nuclei and divide more rapidly.

Progenitor cell. Pale staining.

34

Spermatogenesis 4: undergo clonal divisions. Remains interconnected as a _________. Forms Type B Spermatogonia.

Type A Spermatogonia. Syncytium.

35

Spermatogenesis 5: formed by Type A Spermatogonia. Have more ______ nuclei. Undergoes final _______ division. Produce ________.

Type B Spermatogonia. Spherical. Mitotic. 1' Spermatocyte.

36

Spermatogenesis 6: spherical, euchromatic nuclei, replicate their DNA, each chromosome consist of duplicate chromatids (_______) DNA=____, largest cells of spermatogenic lineage. Presence of partially condensed chromosomes.

Primary spermatocyte. Diploid. 4N.

37

Conversion from primary spermatocyte to secondary spermatocyte

1st meiotic division

38

Spermatogenesis 7: 23 chromosomes, 2 chromatids, DNA= ___, rare, short-lived & remain in ________ only brief then enters ________.

2' Spermatocyte. 2N. Interphase. Second meiotic division.

39

Spermatogenesis 8: due to conversion of 2' Spermatocyte thru 2nd meiotic division. Haploid cells (2), 23 chromosomes. 1N= no ________ (DNA replication) occurs between 1st & 2nd meiotic division.

Spermatids. S phase.

40

Divides into progenitor cells & stem cells

Type A Spermatogonia

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Remain as separate cells

Stem cells

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Have increase cytokines __________. Cells attached to one another by Intercellular bridges of cytoplasm.

Progenitor cells. After telophase.

43

Cells remain linked through period of meiosis

Spermatogenic Syncytium

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Allows free communication among cells derived from a single type A spermatogonia. Allows developing spermatid to share the cytoplasm of neighboring cells. Coordinate division & differentiation.

Intercellular bridges of Cytoplasm

45

Final stage in sperm production. No cell division.

Spermiogenesis

46

In Spermiogenesis: spermatids transform in

Spermatozoa

47

In Spermiogenesis: highly specialized to deliver male DNA to the ovum. ______ size and _______ nuclei. Highly condensed chromatin. Located near the lumen of the seminiferous tubule.

Spermatozoa. Small. Haploid.

48

In Spermiogenesis: includes formation of _______. Condensation & elongation of _________. Development of ________. Loss of much of the _________.

Acrosome. Nucleus. Flagellum. Cytoplasm.

49

In Spermiogenesis: end result is

Mature spermatozoan

50

Three phases of spermiogenesis

Early Golgi, Acrosome & Maturation Phases

51

In Spermiogenesis: Cytoplasm of spermatids contains prominent golgi apparatus near the nucleus. With mitochodria, pair of centrioles, free ribosomes and tubules of smooth ER.

Early Golgi Phase

52

In Spermiogenesis: accumulate in the GA. Coalesce to form a sungle membrane limited ___________.

Small proacrosomal vesicles. Acrosomal cap.

53

In Spermiogenesis: migrate to a position near the cell surface and opposite the forming acrosome

Centrioles

54

In Spermiogenesis: Acrosomal cap/Acrosome spreads to cover about half of the condensing nucleus. Nuclei become more elongated. Highly condensed chromatin. Histones of nucleosome replaced by protamines.

Acrosome phase

55

In Spermiogenesis: Specialized type of lysosome which contains hydrolytic enzymes, hyaluronidase, neuraminidase, acid phosphatase & trypsin-like protease.

Acrosome

56

In Spermiogenesis: enzymes relevant when sperm encounter an oocyte.

Hydrolytic enzymes

57

In Spermiogenesis: trypsin like protease

Acrosin

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In Spermiogenesis: acrosome dissociate cells of corona radiata and digest the zona pellucida.

Acrosomal reaction

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In Spermiogenesis: Small basic peptides

Protamines

60

In Spermiogenesis: thickened region. Continued growth of flagella & aggregation of mitochondria around proximal part where ATP for flagellar movement is generated.

Middle piece

61

In Spermiogenesis: residual body, unneeded cytoplasm shed off and phagocytosed by _______.

Maturation phase. Sertoli cells.

62

In Spermiogenesis: immotile spermatozoa & consequent fertility. Caused by lack of ______ or other proteins for ciliar & flagellar motility. Coincides with chronic _______ infections. Impaired motility of ciliary _______.

Immotile Cilia Syndrome. Dynein. Respiratory. Axonemes.

63

Columnar/Pyramidal. Largely envelope cell of spermatogenic lineage. Supporting/Nurse cells. Bases adhere to _________. Apical ends extend to lumen of ____________. Support __________. Contains abundant SER, some RER, well developed Golgi complex and numerous mitochondria lysosomes.

Sertoli cells. Basal lamina. Seminiferous tubules. 30-50 germ cells.

64

Sertoli cells has an ______ nucleus. Can be _______. Has infoldings, prominent nucleolus and very little heterochromatin.

Elongated. Triangular.

65

Formed by elaborate tight occluding junctions between basolateral membranes of adjacent Sertoli cells. In seminiferous tubules epithelium. Tightest blood tissue barrier. Prevents autoimmune attack against unique spermatogenic cells.

Blood-Testis Barrier

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Lie on Basal compartment. Below junctions. Open to vascularized component (lymphocytes, APCS)

Spermatogonia

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For endocrine & exocrine secretion. Support, protection & nutrition of developing spermatogenic cells. And for phagocytosis.

Adluminal compartment

68

Iron transport protein

Transferrin

69

Concentrates testosterone to a level required for spermiogenesis. Promoted by FSH.

Androgen Binding Protein (ABP)

70

Glycoprotein that suppresses the synthesis & release of FSH.

Inhibin

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Cause regression of embryonic Mullerian/Paramesonephric ducts.

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS)

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Residual bodies

Phagocytosis

73

Site of androgen production. Spaces between seminiferous tubules are filled with CT that contains mast cells, macrophages, nerves and fenestrated capillaries BV.

Interstitial tissue

74

Promoted by LH/ICSH. Produces testosterone. Rounded/Polygonal. Central nuclei. Eosinophilic cytoplasm which is rich in small lipid droplets.

Leydig/Interstitial cell

75

For development of secondary male characteristic. Synthesize by enzyme present in mitochondria & SER.

Testosterone

76

Carry spermatozoa & liquid from straight tubules to ducts of epididymis. Form of loops, both ends joins rete testis by straight tubules. Gradual loss of spermatogenic cells.

Intratesticular Duct

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Interconnected network of channels lined with _________ epithelium. Channels are embedded w/in CT of mediastinum. Drains to efferent ductules.

Rete testis. Simple cuboidal.

78

Components of the Intratesticular ducts

Rete Testis, Efferent ductules & Tubuli Recti (straight tubules) "RET"

79

Lined by unusual epithelium w/ groups of nonciliated _______ cells alternating with groups of _________ cells. ________ appearance of epithelium. Empty into the ductus epididymis.

Efferent ductules. Cuboidal. Taller ciliated. Scalloped.

80

Absorb most of the fluid

Non ciliated cells

81

Transport sperm from epididymis to penis during ejaculation

Excretory Genital ducts

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Components of the Excretory Genital ducts

Ductus/Vas deferens, Urethra & Epididymis " DUE"

83

Singly high coiled tube. Forms the head, body and tail. Lies along superior & posterior sides of each testis where sperm are stored. Attain final characteristics including motility membrane receptors for ___________ proteins, maturation of ________ and ability to ________.

Duct of Epididymis. Zona pellucida. Acrosome. Fertilize.

84

Lining epithelium of the epididymis is ______________ with round _______ & _______ cells w/ long ________ microvilli.

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium. Basal cells. Columnar. branched irregular.

85

Absorb water . Participate in uptake & digestion of residual bodies. Peristaltic contractions move the sperm.

Epithelial cells

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Long branched irregular microvilli

Stereocilia

87

Long straight tubule. Thick muscular wall that is continuous toward prostatic urethra & empties to its narrow lumen and a thick layer of SM. Mucosa is folded _________.

Ductus Deferens. Longitudinally.

88

Lining epithelium of Ductus Deferens

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium w/ sparse Stereocili

89

Lamina propia of Ductus Deferens is rich in _________. Has a very thick muscularis _________ longitudinal and _________ circular. Peristaltic contractions.

Elastic fibers. Inner & Outer. Middle.

90

Ductus deferens forms a part of ___________. Testicular artery, pampiniform plexus and nerves.

Spermatic cord

91

Ductus deferens dilates to form _______ after passing over UB. Epithelium is thicker & more extensively folded. At final portion, ________ join the duct.

Ampulla. Seminal vesicle.

92

Ductus deferens enters ______ then to ________.

Prostate gland. Prostatic urethra.

93

Segment entering the prostate

Ejaculatory duct

94

Disappears beyond the ampulla

Muscle layers

95

Produce secretions that are added to sperm during ejaculation.

Accessory glands

96

Accessory glands components

Bulbourethral glands, Seminal vesicle & Prostate gland "BSP"

97

Consist of highly turtuous tubes. Unusual mucosa has numerous thin, complex folds that fills most of the lumen.

Seminal vesicles

98

Folds of the seminal vesicles lined with ______________ rich in ________ granules.

Simple/Pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells. Secretory.

99

Lamina propia of seminal vesicle contains _______ surrounded by SM with ________ circular & ________ longitudinal. Has an exocrine gland. Activity depend on levels of _________.

Elastic fibers. Inner. Outer. Testosterone.

100

Produces a viscid, yellowish secretion containing fructose, citrate, inositol, prostaglandin, fibrinogen, enzyme & proteins. Make up ___% of the ejaculate provide nutrient energy sources. Coagulate semen after ejaculation affect activity of female reproductive tract.

Exocrine gland of the seminal vesicles. 70.

101

Dense organ surrounding the urethra below UB. Collection of 30-50 __________ glands. Surrounded by a dense fibromuscular stroma covered by a ________.

Prostate. Branched tubuloalveolar glands. Capsule.

102

Prostage gland is arranged in concentric layers around urethra. Inner layer of _______, intermediate layer of _______ & peripheral layer of _________. All empty in the _________.

Mucosal glands. Submucosal glands. Prostate's main gland. Prostatic Urethra.

103

Prostate gland has ______ zones.

Three.

104

5% prostate volume. Surrounds prostatic urethra. Contains mucosal glands.

Transition zone

105

25%. Contains submucosal glands with longer ducts.

Central zone

106

70% contains main glands with longer ducts.

Peripheral zone

107

Most common location of inflammation and cancer.

Main gland of prostate

108

In Prostate, LE of tubuloalveolar glands is ______________. Produce __________ containing glycoprotein and enzyme. Surrounded by fibromuscular stroma and fibroelastic capsule. Structure function depends on level of _________.

Simple/Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium. Prostatic fluid. Testosterone.

109

Small, spherical, calcified concretions. Lumen of prostatic glands. Contains deposited glycoproteins. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans known as __________.

Corpora amylacea/Prostatic concretions

110

Located in urogenital diaphragm. Empty into proximal part of penile urethra. Has several lobules with tubuloalveolar secretory units.

Bulbourethral/Cowper's gland

111

Cowper's gland is lined by ______________ dependent on testosterone. Septa between lobules contain SM cells. During erection, release a clear mucus like secretion containing small carbs. Coats plus lubricates urethral lining.

Mucus-secreting simple columnar epithelium

112

Three cylindrical mass of the penis

2 corpora cavernosa & corpus spongiosum

113

Cylindrical mass that is ventrally located & surrounds urethra. Expands and forms ______.

Corpus spongiosum. Glans.

114

Cylindrical mass placed dorsally

2 corpora cavernosa

115

LE of Penile Urethra

Pseudostratified squamous epithelium

116

Glands found in penile urethra which has small mucus secretion

Gland of Littre/Urethral glands

117

Penis is covered by a retractile fold of thin skin with sebaceous glands

Prepuce/Foreskin

118

Covered by tunica albuginea. Resistant layer of CT.

Corpora cavernosa.