Chapter 7: Cellular Respiration Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Cellular Respiration Study Guide Deck (24):
1

the complex process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds

cellular respiration

2

Cellular Respiration Equation

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (ATP)
(--> = enzymes)

3

The 2 main stages of cellular respiration

glycolysis and aerobic respiration

4

Where does glycolysis occur?

In the cytoplasm

5

Where does aerobic respiration occur?

In the mitochondria

6

a biochemical pathway in which one six-carbon molecule of glucose is oxidized to produce two three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid.

glycolysis

7

What does glycolysis start with?

A six-carbon molecule of glucose

8

What does glycolysis produce?

2 ATP and 2 NADH

9

the process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen

aerobic respiration

10

What does aerobic respiration start with?

pyruvic acid that is converted into acetyl CoA

11

What does aerobic respiration produce?

CO2 and water which produce a large amount of ATP

12

What happens after glycolysis if oxygen is available or present?

The Krebs Cycle and the electron transport chain

13

the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product

Lactic acid fermentation

14

Microorganisms in the production of dairy products use this. It also occurs in muscle cells during strenuous exercise. Multicellular organisms use this more commonly than unicellular.

Lactic acid fermentation

15

the anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol.

alcoholic fermentation

16

_____ ________ and _____ are produced in alcoholic fermentation.

Ethyl alcohol and CO2

17

Unicellular cells use this type of fermentation the most

alcoholic fermentation

18

What are the 2 processes of aerobic respiration?

The Krebs Cycle and the electron transport chain

19

What are the products of the Krebs Cycle?

4 molecules of CO2, 2 ATP molecules, and hydrogen atoms that are used to make six NADH and 2 FADH2 molecules.

20

Where do the products of the Krebs Cycle (4 molecules of CO2, 2 ATP molecules, and hydrogen atoms that are used to make six NADH and 2 FADH2 molecules) go?

The CO2 diffuses out of the cell. The ATP can be used for energy. The six NADH and 2 FADH2 molecules go to aerobic respiration.

21

Where does the electron transport chain occur?

In the inner mitochondrial matrix

22

What supplies the electron transport chain with electrons?

NADH and FADH2

23

How does the electron transport chain create a concentration gradient?

It produces a concentration gradient because the protons donated by NADH and FADH2 are pumped into the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes creating a concentration gradient of protons and a charge gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.

24

How is ATP formed using ETC and ATP synthase? Compare the number of ATP produced in chemiosmosis to ATP produced in Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle)

ATP is produced by chemiosmosis using ETC and ATP synthase by the ETC when NADH and FADH2 release electrons and protons to the ETC and they move down the ETC. They lose energy doing this. The energy lost from from the electrons is used to pump protons between the inner and outer membranes. Creating a concentration gradient of protons and an electrical gradient. The concentration and electrical gradients of protons drive the synthesis of ATP by chemiosmosis. ATP synthase molecules are embedded in the inner membrane. As protons move through ATP synthase and down their concentration and electrical gradient, ATP is made from ADP and phosphate. Oxygen accepts the electrons that have passed down the chain and protons that were part of the hydrogen atoms supplied by NADH and FADH2 producing water. The amount of ATP produced in chemiosmosis is significantly higher than in Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle. Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle produce 2 ATP each and chemiosmosis can produce as many as 38 (36 is the normal).