Chapter 9 & 10.3 Slides Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 & 10.3 Slides Deck (34)
1

Stages 1 & 2 have ______ amplitude and _____ frequency

higher; lower

2

Sleep spindles are activity between the ______ and _______

thalamus; cortex

3

When an EEG shows high synchrony, you are ______.

asleep

4

When an EEG shows low synchrony, you are _____.

awake

5

High levels of Per and Tim cause ______.

sleepiness

6

In stage 4, the thalamus stops sending sensation to ______ unless very important

cortex

7

________ periods increase in length and frequency toward morning.

REM

8

Stimulation of the __________ stimulates increases wakefulness/alertness

pontomesencephalon

9

________ connects to basal forebrain which then sends "wake up" signals to the cortex (acetylcholine)

Pontomesencephalon

10

The ________ is active when we want to learn/remember something important.

locus coeruleus

11

The ________ projects to cortex and uses acetylcholine. Damage causes low arousal and poor learning.

basal forebrain

12

The _______'s cells stimulate arousal by releasing the NTs histamine (waking up) & orexin (staying awake).

hypothalamus

13

All day, cells in the ____________ release GABA and adenosine and this causes us to go to sleep.

basal forebrain

14

caffeine inhibits ______

adenosine

15

What is the main path of mechanisms that enable us to wake up?

High sensory info travels to reticular formation which releases acetylcholine into basal forebrain which sends more acetylcholine (excites) to cortex. Also the locus coeruleus releases norepinephrine and the hypothalamus releases histamine and orexin to the basal forebrain.

16

What is the main path of the mechanisms that enable us to go to sleep?

Low sensory info goes to reticular formation (pontomsencephalon) then the basal forebrain that releases GABA and Adensosine that inhibit the cortex

17

What brain areas increase activity during REM?

pons, limbic system, parietal and temporal cortex

18

What brain areas decrease activity during REM?

V1, prefrontal cortex, motor cortex

19

Increasing _____ increases REM; increasing _______ inhibits REM

acetylcholine; serotonin

20

Stomach emptiness releases _____, the hunger hormone.

Ghrelin

21

The top of the small intestine is called the _______.

duodenum

22

The ________ releases CCK.

duodenum

23

_____ causes sphincter muscle to close so stomach fills quickly and it also stimulates vagus nerve sending fullness signal to hypothalamus.

CCK

24

The liver converts _____ into glucose.

glycogen

25

_____ allows cells to use glucose or store glycogen.

Insulin

26

______ stimulates liver to convert glycogen to glucose.

Glucagon

27

When you eat, glucose and insulin go _____.

up

28

Where is insulin made?

pancreas

29

Obese people have a lot of _____, but are insensitive to it.

leptin

30

_____ is a chemical that decreases hunger, increases immune system and reproductive hormones.

leptin

31

What are the four important areas in hypothalamic regulation of eating?

lateral hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, and arcuate nucleus

32

Where does the input for neurons in the arcuate nucleus that signal satiety come from?

Leptin, glucose, insulin, CCK

33

Where does the input for neurons in the arcuate nucleus that signal hunger come from?

taste cells and ghrelin

34

During REM sleep, the EEG shows:

irregular, low-voltage fast waves