Flashcards in Chapter 9 & 10.3 Slides Deck (34)
Stages 1 & 2 have ______ amplitude and _____ frequency
Sleep spindles are activity between the ______ and _______
When an EEG shows high synchrony, you are ______.
When an EEG shows low synchrony, you are _____.
High levels of Per and Tim cause ______.
In stage 4, the thalamus stops sending sensation to ______ unless very important
________ periods increase in length and frequency toward morning.
Stimulation of the __________ stimulates increases wakefulness/alertness
________ connects to basal forebrain which then sends "wake up" signals to the cortex (acetylcholine)
The ________ is active when we want to learn/remember something important.
The ________ projects to cortex and uses acetylcholine. Damage causes low arousal and poor learning.
The _______'s cells stimulate arousal by releasing the NTs histamine (waking up) & orexin (staying awake).
All day, cells in the ____________ release GABA and adenosine and this causes us to go to sleep.
caffeine inhibits ______
What is the main path of mechanisms that enable us to wake up?
High sensory info travels to reticular formation which releases acetylcholine into basal forebrain which sends more acetylcholine (excites) to cortex. Also the locus coeruleus releases norepinephrine and the hypothalamus releases histamine and orexin to the basal forebrain.
What is the main path of the mechanisms that enable us to go to sleep?
Low sensory info goes to reticular formation (pontomsencephalon) then the basal forebrain that releases GABA and Adensosine that inhibit the cortex
What brain areas increase activity during REM?
pons, limbic system, parietal and temporal cortex
What brain areas decrease activity during REM?
V1, prefrontal cortex, motor cortex
Increasing _____ increases REM; increasing _______ inhibits REM
Stomach emptiness releases _____, the hunger hormone.
The top of the small intestine is called the _______.
The ________ releases CCK.
_____ causes sphincter muscle to close so stomach fills quickly and it also stimulates vagus nerve sending fullness signal to hypothalamus.
The liver converts _____ into glucose.
_____ allows cells to use glucose or store glycogen.
______ stimulates liver to convert glycogen to glucose.
When you eat, glucose and insulin go _____.
Where is insulin made?
Obese people have a lot of _____, but are insensitive to it.
_____ is a chemical that decreases hunger, increases immune system and reproductive hormones.
What are the four important areas in hypothalamic regulation of eating?
lateral hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, and arcuate nucleus
Where does the input for neurons in the arcuate nucleus that signal satiety come from?
Leptin, glucose, insulin, CCK
Where does the input for neurons in the arcuate nucleus that signal hunger come from?
taste cells and ghrelin