Flashcards in Chapter Eight Deck (26):
What are the four common characteristics of motor skills?
-There is a goal to achieve
-Body and limb movement
-Need to be learned
What are the 3 classifications of the one dimensional motor skills?
-Size of musculature
-Distinctiveness of the movements
-Stability of the environment
What are gross motor skills?
Associated with the size of musculature that involves large muscles, and the precision of the movement is not important; smooth coordination of muscles is essential (running)
What are fine motor skills?
Associated with the size of musculature that requires control of small muscles to achieve a goal and usually involves a high degrees of precision of movement and hand eye coordination (sewing)
What is the distinctiveness of the movements
Defining beginning and end points of movement through discrete motor skills, serial motor skills, and continuous motor skills
What are discrete motor skills?
Clearly defined beginning and end points (throwing a dart)
What are serial motor skills?
A series of discrete motor skills performed in specific order (dance routine)
What are continuous motor skills?
No obvious beginning and endpoints (jogging)
What are closed motor skills?
Associated with the stability of the environment where the task is performed in a stable and predictable environment (tennis serve)
What are open motor skills?
Associated with the stability of the environment where the task being performed is in a continuously changing and unpredictable environment (tennis rally)
What are the two ways to measure motor skills?
-Performance outcome measures
-Performance process measures
What are performance outcome measures?
Measures the outcome or result of performing a motor skill. Common measures include reaction time, movement time, and amount of error
What are the performance process measures?
Measures how aspects of the motor control system function during the performance of action. Common measures include kinematics. Electromyography, kinetics, and coordination
What is reaction time?
The time interval between the presentation of a signal and the initiation of a movement through simple reaction time, choice reaction time, and discrimination reaction time
What are the two parts of reaction time?
-Premotor time: time between the signal and first change of EMG activity in the muscle
-Motor time: time between first muscle EMG activity and observable movement
What is movement time?
Time interval between the start of a movement and is completion
What are performance errors?
Used to determine whether or not the goal of movement was achieved through absolute error, constant error, and variable error
What is absolute error?
Estimate of overall size of the error
What is constant error?
Provides information on overall direction of error
What is variable error?
The standard deviation of the performance
What are kinematics?
Motion qualities without regard to force through displacement, velocity, and acceleration
What is kinetics?
Various internal and external forces acting on the body (gravity or joint muscles)
What is electromyography?
Electrical activity in the muscles
What is coordination?
Spatial and temporal relationships of limb segments
How does the information processing model work?
Input, sensory system, memory, processor, response organizational and effector mechanism