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Flashcards in Module Nine Deck (37):

What is learning?

Inferred from behaviour


What may affect performance other than learning?

-Strong Teammates


How can you tell if learning had occurred

-Change over time
-More consistent performance
-Change is relatively permanent


What are the three stages of learning?

Cognitive stage
Associative stage
Autonomous stage


What happens in the cognitive stage?

Large numbers of errors occur with variable performance involving a high cognitive involvement (beginners)


What are gross errors?

Happen in the cognitive stage that are considered large and catastrophic


What happens in the associative stage

-Fewer errors occur
-Ability to detect own errors
-Basic fundamentals have been learned
-decreased variability
-Cognitive shift to higher order components


What happens in the autonomous stage?

-Skills become automatic
-Little to no error at all
-There is a well-established internal standard of performance that allows for detection and correction of errors
-Advanced rather than beginners


Learning through practice can be:

-Real: practicing the skill yourself
-Imaginary/mental: practicing the skill in your 'minds eye'
-observational: seeing other's perform the skill


What are the 3 types of transfer of learning

-Positive transfer
-Negative transfer
-Zero transfer


What is a positive learning transfer?

When the experience with a precious skill facilitates the learning of a new skill. It is most likely when the components of the skill are similar or there are similarities between the learning process required


What is a negative learning transfer?

When the experience with a previous skill interferes with the learning of new skills. It occurs when you need to learn something else under the same conditions


When are negative learning transfers most likely to occur?

-When there are changes to spatial locations required
-When there are changes to timing required


What is zero learning transfer

When the experience with previous skills have no effect on the learning of a new skill


What are the 3 instructional methods for promoting transfer

-Provide contextual interference
-Vary the type of practice
-Reduce the frequency of feedback


What is whole practice

Practicing the skill in cohesive matter; helps the learner get a feel for flow and timing of the skill


What is part practice?

Practicing a skill by breaking it down into individual units and attempting to "perfect" each one before combining them into one whole unit; helps Learners master each component of a whole skill


What should be considered when deciding whether to use whole or part practice

-Task complexity: number of parts in the task
-Task organization: how the components of the task are interrelated


When should you use whole practice?

If a skill is low in complexity but high in organization


When should you use part practice?

When the skill is high in complexity but low in organization


What is the difference between block and random practice

-Block: the task is practiced on many consecutive trials before the next task
-Random: the ordering of the tasks is randomized during practice


What is practice variability?

Refers to the variety of movement and context characteristics the learner experiences while practicing a skill


What are closed skills?

Relates to practice variability where the practice conditions should be similar to those that will prevail under competition conditions (noise, height, weight)


What are open skills?

Refers to practice variability where each response is somewhat novel and requires movement patterns that can be used in a variety of situations (patterns, noise, fatigue)


What is augmented feedback?

Information about performance that comes from an outside source through knowledge of results and knowledge of performance


What is knowledge of results?

Information about the outcome


What is knowledge of performance?

Information about the production of the movement patterns


What is the purpose for augmented feedback?

-Provides information for error identification and correction
-Acts as s form of reinforcement
-Served to motivate the learner


What are forms of feedback?

-Augmented sensory feedback


Feedback can be:

Both quantitative and qualitative


Feedback over a long period of time can:

Cause a dependency on that feedback


What are forms of minimizing feedback?

Faded feedback
Bandwidth feedback
Summary feedback


What is faded feedback?

As an athlete gets better at a task, the feedback from the coach can become more minimal


What is bandwidth feedback?

If the athlete achieved doing the task in the right way, feedback is not necessary, whereas feedback will be given if the task is not done correctly


What is summary feedback?

Allowing the practice of a task a few times in a row Before providing feedback and continually following this pattern


When is feedback important through learning processes?

-Cognitive: feedback is vital
-Associative: faded, bandwidth, or summary
-Autonomous: feedback can be withdrawn


What is performance?

An observable behaviour