Chapters 7, 8, and 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 7, 8, and 9 Deck (69):
0

The EMT would best recognize normal cellular metabolism as ________________

AEROBIC

1

Under normal circumstances, carbon dioxide is excreted from teh body through the _______________

LUNGS

2

A patient's bran cells are undergoing anaerobic metabolism. AS a result, those cells __________________

Are becoming dysfunctional in a highly acidic environment.

3

What happens after a cell in anaerobic metabolism breaks down glucose and creates energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate?

LACTIC ACID IS FORMED

4

Perfusion is best described as ____________________

The delivery of essential products and nutrients to the cell for its use

5

For a patient breathing in room air, the EMT would estimate the FiO2 to be ___________________

0.21

6

A patient with a low blood sugar is uresponsive with snoring respirations. His breathing is labored and his pulse is rapid and weak. Examination of the skin reveals it to be cool and diaphoretic. Your partner informs you of the following vital signs: pulse 120, respirations 18, blood pressure 132/60, and SpO2 at 84% on room air. Which one of the following actions would you perform first?

** Provide high concentration oxygen

**Administer oral glucose

**Perform a head tilt chin lift

**Start positive pressure ventilation

PERFORM A HEAD TILT CHIN LIFT

7

Which of the following statements about chemoreceptors in the human body is true?

**The central chemorecepotrs are located in the lungs and provide the primary stimulus to breathe

** The peripheral chemoreceptors are extremely sensitive to oxygen and are located in the brain

** The peripheral chemoreceptors are more sensitive to oxygen than carbon dioxide

** The central chemoreceptors constantly monitor the oxygen levels in the body and increase the rate when more O2 is needed

The peripheral chemoreceptors are more sensitive to oxygen than carbon dioxide

8

A 20-year-old female has called 911 for chest pain. On scene you ifnd that she has shallow breathing with an SpO2 reading of 91% on room air. She states she was in a car crash yesterday and diagnosed in the hospital with broken ribs. She says that her pain is right where the ribs are broken and rates it a 10/10. Breath sounds are prsent bilaterally. In this situation, the EMT should attribute the hypoxia to which of the following?

**Pain from rib injury prevents full expansion of the chest cage

**The fractured ribs have pierced the lung, causing it to collapse

**The patient is bleeding into the lungs, compressing the alveoli

**Swelling from the rib fractures has compressed the lung

Pain from the rib injury prevents full expansion of the chest cage

9

Baroreceptors function in the body by _______________

Monitoring the blood pressure

10

A patient with cancer is receiving chemotherapy. As a side effect of the treatment, her white blood cell count is critically low. Given this situation, which sign or symptom should the EMT find particularly concerning?

**Complaint of weakness

**Blood pressure of 102/64

** History of Diabetes

** Oral temperature of 102.7

Oral temperature of 102.7

11

You are caring for a 66 year old male who is severly dehydrated. Given this condition, you would recognize which of the following related to the cardiovascuar system?

**Decreased blood volume available for circulation

**Decreased production of white blood cells

**Difficulty of the hemoglobin in carrying oxygen

**Decreased ability of oxygen to diffuse from the lungs to the blood

Decreased blood volume available for circulation

12

A confused and lethargic 24 year old male has intentionally overdosed on a narcotic medication. His vital signs are: pulse 36, respirations 8, blood pressure 50/20, and SpO2 88% with 15 liters per minute of oxygen. The greatest danger to this patient's well being is __________________

DECREASED CELLULAR PERFUSION

13

A 35 year old male is lethargic and dehydrated after working at a construction site for 12 hours on a very hot day. You obtain the following vital signs. pulse 136, respirations 22, blood pressure 102/88 and SpO2 100% with supplemental oxygen. As a knowledgeable EMT, you would recognize ___________________

An elevated heart rate to increase cardiac output

14

The EMT would recognize which of the followign vital signs as most likel yto cause left ventricular failure?

**Chronically decreased diastolic blood pressure between 30 and 50 mmHg

**Chronically elevated systolic blood pressure between 140 and 160 mmHg

**Chronically decreased systolic blood pressure between 60 and 80 mmHg

**Chronically elevated diastolic pressure between 120 and 140 mmHg

Chronically elevated diastolic pressure between 120 and 140 mmHg

15

A patient has been shot three times in the abdomen and has massive internal hemmorhage and blood loss. What will best give this patient a chance at survival?

STOPPING THE BLEEDING

16

You ar the critical care transport team and taking a critically ill patient to another hospital. among many IV infusions and monitors, the patient is also on a ventilator. You note that the FDO2 is set at .50. What does this mean?

The provided oxygen concentration is set at 50%

17

What best describes minute ventilation?

AMOUNT OF AIR MOVED INTO AND OUT OF THE LUNGS IN ONE MINUTE

18

The body will compensate for a decrease in cardiac output by __________________

INCREASING SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE

19

The EMT would most likely see a narrowed pulse pressure who ___________________

IS BLEEDING INTERNALLY

20

A slightly confused but conscious 61 year old female with generalized weakness has a heart rate of 190 beats per minute. she ahs a history of high blood pressure and diabetes. her blood pressure is 78/56 mmHg. Which one of the following would best explain the patient's presentation?

**Hemorrhage

**Tachycardia

**Hypoxia

**Hypoglycemia

TACHYCARDIA

21

A patient has a blood pressure of 140/98 mmHg. Which one of the following can the EMT ascertain from this reading?

THE AFTERLOAD IS INCREASED

22

Paramedics have administered a medication to a patient in heart failure. The medication specifically causes the veins to enlarge, thus decreasing the amount of blood coming back to the heart for pumping. The EMT would recognzie this action as ___________________

PRELOAD

23

Which of the following correctly identifies the primary way in which oxygen is transported to the cells?

**Red blood cell

**Plasma proteins

**White blood cell

**Plasma

RED BLOOD CELL

24

For a patient reliant on the hypoxic drive to breathe, the respiratory rate will increase when ______________

OXYGEN LEVELS DECREASE

25

When assessing a sick 3-week old baby, which finding would be most concerning?

**Fontanelle level with the skkull

**Rectal temperatrure of 99.4

**Mucus occluding both nares

**Soft spot to the top of the head

MUCUS OCCLUDING BOTH NARES

26

you are assessing a 4 year old with a fever and cough. The child is very calm and receptive to your presence. Which of the following acitons would be most appropriate?

**Have the mother remain with him for the assessment

**Refrain from touching the patient until the ambulance

**Take the child to the ambulance for assessment

**Ask teh mother to leave until the assessment is complete

have the motehr remain with him for the assessment

27

You are en route to a home for an 8 year old with "noisy" breathing and a cough. As you respond, which of the following pieces of advice would you give your partner, a new EMT?

** The scene probably will be chaotic, so let's just get to the patient out to the ambulanse and assess him there

**We will need to be careful. children of this age group tend to throw tantrums, and we could get hurt if we asre not careful

**Although most children of this age are trusting of authoity, let's apporach slowly and make the scene work for us

**Most children in this aGE GROUP HAVE A SHORT ATTENTION SPAN, SO WE NEED TO ASSESS HIM AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE

ALTHOUGH MOST CHILDREN OF THIS AGE ARE TRUSTING OF AUTHORITY, LET'S APPROACH SLOWLY AND MAKE THE SCENE WORK FOR US

28

You have been asked to speak to a local EMT calss about caring for the patient over the age of 60 years. when presenting your material, what point would you emphasize?

The majority of persons in this age group enjoy independent living

29

You have received a grant to promote healthy living habits among the 20 to 40 year old age group. given the most common cause of death within this age group, which topic should be the focus of your program?

Safe Driving

30

You have been called for a 2 week old baby whose mother feels as though he is sick. When assessign the patient and obtaining a history form the mother, which of the following would be most concerning?

**You observe that the baby seems to breathe only though his nose

**The fontanelles are lower than the level of the skull

**The father states that the baby feeds every 2-3 hours

**He has lost weight since he was born

The fontanelles are lower than the level of the skull

31

When assessing a neonate, which of the following would deserve closer investigation?

Heart rate of 92 beats per minute

32

Teh average years of life remaining based on an individual's date of birth is called ___________________

LIFE EXPECTANCY

33

You are transporting a 3 week old male, with a fever and cough, to the hospital. when calling a radio report, you would advise the emergency department that you are bringing them _______________

A NEONATE

34

Which of the folowing would be categorized as a toddler?

**48 month old male

** 6 month old female

** 4.5 year old male

**28 month old male

28 MONTH OLD MALE

35

PUBERTY IS BEST DESCRIBED AS __________________

maturation of the sexual organs

36

You are caring for a 6 month old male who is fussy, crying, and has a fever. What would be most appropriate?

**distract the baby with a small toy or ball so that you can assess hi

*Keep the parents calm even though it is the baby you are caring for

**Wait for the baby to stop crying so that you can properly asses him

**Talk to the parents and not the baby since a stranger's voice is upsetting

Keep the parents calm even though it is the baby you are caring for.

37

The systolic blood pressure of a 4 year old girl is 86 mmHg. Her mother is ocncerned because last year at the pediatrician's office the systolic blood pressure was 72 mmHg and now it is higher. How would you respond?

"Her blood pressure will increase naturally. This is normal and healthy"

38

You are at the residecne of a nalert and oriented 87 year old female who is very short of breath but is refusing to go to the hospital. rather, she wants you to treat her at home and then leave when she feels better> As an EMT knowledgeable of the characteristics and behaviors of this age group, you would become suspicious that her request is based on the fact that she__________________

IS CONCERNED THAT SHE MAY BE GIVING UP THE INDEPENDENCE OF LIVING IN HER HOME

39

A 23 year old male has been shot with a rifle. The bullet entered his chest just above the left nipple and exited his body just left of his lumbar spine. Proper documentation of this injury would include ___________________

ENTRY WOUND TO THE ANTERIOR THORAX

40

A female patient has suffered a stroke to the right side of her brain and has paralysis to the contralateral portion of her body. Which of the following is true?

**She cant move her arms or legs

**She cannot move her left arm and leg

**She is paralyzed on the right side of her body

**Her left and right legs are paralyzed

She cannot move her left arm and leg

41

Another EMT informs you that a patient has bee nstabbed once with a knife in the midaxillary region. Where is this injury located?

Left lateral chest

42

Which plane would show the liver, stomach, and spleen?

TRANSVERSE PLANE

43

What best describes the anatomical position?

Standing with the arms down at the side and palms facing forward

44

A patient informs you that he injured a tendon in his knee three years ago and has had a difficult itme walking since You recognize that this injury involves a structure that _______________

CONNECTS MUSCLES TO THE KNEE

45

Involuntary or smooth muscles are found on which of the following structures?

**Central nervous system

**Muscles of the arms and legs

**Heart and blood vessels

**Blood vessels and intestines

BLOOD VESSELS AND INTESTINES

46

A patient has fracutred bones in his left leg. What bones could be broken?

FEMUR, TIBIA, OR FIBULA

47

Following radiation therapy for breast cancer, a female has a low white blodo cell count. What condition does this place her at risk to acquire?

INFECTION

48

A patient has severe swelling of the leafe shaped flap that helps prevent food from entering the lower respiratory system. Knowing that the suffix "itis" refers to inflammation, which one of the following conditions is the patient suffering form?

EPIGLOTTITIS

49

The terms occipital, parietal, and front al refer to which part of the body?

CRANIUM

50

A patient experiencing thoracic spine pain has pain in his ___________________

UPPER BACK

51

You are assessing a patient with an obvious left midshaft femur fracture. The most immediate threate to this patient's well being is _______________

BLOOD LOSS

52

In which one of the followign body systems are the thyroid glands, adrenal glands, pituitary glands, and gonads located?

**Hormonal

**endocrine

**nervous

**Respiratory

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

53

The spinal collumn is composed of what sections described from superior to inferior?

CERVICAL
THORACIC
LUMBAR
SACRAL
COCCYX

54

The nervous system is subdivided into the _____________________

Central and peripheral systems

55

What is the fluid that carries blood cells and nutrients?

PLASMA

56

The bones of the upper extremities include ____________________

HUMERUS AND RADIUS

57

Which of the following is the vessel that carries oxygen depleted blood to the right atrium?

**Internal jugular

**Posterior tibial

**Vena cava

**Aorta

VENA CAVA

58

A patient is complaining of extreme dizziness and headache. Which one of the following conditions is mot likely to be responsible for this complaint?

**Occlusion of the carotid arteries

**Occlusion of the popiteal vein

**Clot in teh abdominal aorta

**Rupture of the radial vein

Occlusion of the carotid arteries

59

The EMT shows correct understanding of the circulatory system when he identifes the primary function of the heart as _________________

PUMPING BLOOD THROUGHOUT THE BODY

60

The left side of a patient's heart is in severe failure, causing blood to back up behind it. what sign or symptom are you most likely to observe?

CRACKLES IN THE LUNGS

61

Which one of the following statements regarding the integumentary system is true?

**The skin contains four layers: epidermal, dermal, subcutaneous, and nerve layer

** The epidermis is the thickest and most important layer of teh skin

**The dermal layer is the most outermost layer of teh skin and contains sensory nerves

**The skin protects the body agains bacteria and other organisms

THE SKIN PROTECTS THE BODY AGAINS BACTERIA AND OTEHR ORGANISMS

62

Which one of the following is a beta1 sympathetic effect?

**Vasoconstriction

**Increased heart rate

**Bronchodilation

**Vasodilation

INCREASED HEART RATE

63

Which action produces inhalation?

**Diaphragm contracts

**Pressure in the chest increases

**Chest cavity decreases in size

**Intercostal muscles relax

DIAPHRAGM CONTRACTS

64

As you arrive on scene, an EMR informs you that the patient has agonal respirations. By this description, you would expect the patient's breathing to be ______________________

DEEP AND GASPING

65

A patient with kidney failure has lost his ability to __________________

Filter and excrete wastes

66

A patient with bronchitis is suffering from __________________

INFLAMMATION OF THE BRONCHIOLES

67

A PATIENT WITH A CALCANEAL FRACTURE HAS BROKEN _______________

a heel

68

A patient described as dysphagic presents as __________________

HAVING DIFFICULTY SWALLOWING