Flashcards in Chapters 7, 8, and 9 Deck (69):
The EMT would best recognize normal cellular metabolism as ________________
Under normal circumstances, carbon dioxide is excreted from teh body through the _______________
A patient's bran cells are undergoing anaerobic metabolism. AS a result, those cells __________________
Are becoming dysfunctional in a highly acidic environment.
What happens after a cell in anaerobic metabolism breaks down glucose and creates energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate?
LACTIC ACID IS FORMED
Perfusion is best described as ____________________
The delivery of essential products and nutrients to the cell for its use
For a patient breathing in room air, the EMT would estimate the FiO2 to be ___________________
A patient with a low blood sugar is uresponsive with snoring respirations. His breathing is labored and his pulse is rapid and weak. Examination of the skin reveals it to be cool and diaphoretic. Your partner informs you of the following vital signs: pulse 120, respirations 18, blood pressure 132/60, and SpO2 at 84% on room air. Which one of the following actions would you perform first?
** Provide high concentration oxygen
**Administer oral glucose
**Perform a head tilt chin lift
**Start positive pressure ventilation
PERFORM A HEAD TILT CHIN LIFT
Which of the following statements about chemoreceptors in the human body is true?
**The central chemorecepotrs are located in the lungs and provide the primary stimulus to breathe
** The peripheral chemoreceptors are extremely sensitive to oxygen and are located in the brain
** The peripheral chemoreceptors are more sensitive to oxygen than carbon dioxide
** The central chemoreceptors constantly monitor the oxygen levels in the body and increase the rate when more O2 is needed
The peripheral chemoreceptors are more sensitive to oxygen than carbon dioxide
A 20-year-old female has called 911 for chest pain. On scene you ifnd that she has shallow breathing with an SpO2 reading of 91% on room air. She states she was in a car crash yesterday and diagnosed in the hospital with broken ribs. She says that her pain is right where the ribs are broken and rates it a 10/10. Breath sounds are prsent bilaterally. In this situation, the EMT should attribute the hypoxia to which of the following?
**Pain from rib injury prevents full expansion of the chest cage
**The fractured ribs have pierced the lung, causing it to collapse
**The patient is bleeding into the lungs, compressing the alveoli
**Swelling from the rib fractures has compressed the lung
Pain from the rib injury prevents full expansion of the chest cage
Baroreceptors function in the body by _______________
Monitoring the blood pressure
A patient with cancer is receiving chemotherapy. As a side effect of the treatment, her white blood cell count is critically low. Given this situation, which sign or symptom should the EMT find particularly concerning?
**Complaint of weakness
**Blood pressure of 102/64
** History of Diabetes
** Oral temperature of 102.7
Oral temperature of 102.7
You are caring for a 66 year old male who is severly dehydrated. Given this condition, you would recognize which of the following related to the cardiovascuar system?
**Decreased blood volume available for circulation
**Decreased production of white blood cells
**Difficulty of the hemoglobin in carrying oxygen
**Decreased ability of oxygen to diffuse from the lungs to the blood
Decreased blood volume available for circulation
A confused and lethargic 24 year old male has intentionally overdosed on a narcotic medication. His vital signs are: pulse 36, respirations 8, blood pressure 50/20, and SpO2 88% with 15 liters per minute of oxygen. The greatest danger to this patient's well being is __________________
DECREASED CELLULAR PERFUSION
A 35 year old male is lethargic and dehydrated after working at a construction site for 12 hours on a very hot day. You obtain the following vital signs. pulse 136, respirations 22, blood pressure 102/88 and SpO2 100% with supplemental oxygen. As a knowledgeable EMT, you would recognize ___________________
An elevated heart rate to increase cardiac output
The EMT would recognize which of the followign vital signs as most likel yto cause left ventricular failure?
**Chronically decreased diastolic blood pressure between 30 and 50 mmHg
**Chronically elevated systolic blood pressure between 140 and 160 mmHg
**Chronically decreased systolic blood pressure between 60 and 80 mmHg
**Chronically elevated diastolic pressure between 120 and 140 mmHg
Chronically elevated diastolic pressure between 120 and 140 mmHg
A patient has been shot three times in the abdomen and has massive internal hemmorhage and blood loss. What will best give this patient a chance at survival?
STOPPING THE BLEEDING
You ar the critical care transport team and taking a critically ill patient to another hospital. among many IV infusions and monitors, the patient is also on a ventilator. You note that the FDO2 is set at .50. What does this mean?
The provided oxygen concentration is set at 50%
What best describes minute ventilation?
AMOUNT OF AIR MOVED INTO AND OUT OF THE LUNGS IN ONE MINUTE
The body will compensate for a decrease in cardiac output by __________________
INCREASING SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE
The EMT would most likely see a narrowed pulse pressure who ___________________
IS BLEEDING INTERNALLY
A slightly confused but conscious 61 year old female with generalized weakness has a heart rate of 190 beats per minute. she ahs a history of high blood pressure and diabetes. her blood pressure is 78/56 mmHg. Which one of the following would best explain the patient's presentation?
A patient has a blood pressure of 140/98 mmHg. Which one of the following can the EMT ascertain from this reading?
THE AFTERLOAD IS INCREASED
Paramedics have administered a medication to a patient in heart failure. The medication specifically causes the veins to enlarge, thus decreasing the amount of blood coming back to the heart for pumping. The EMT would recognzie this action as ___________________
Which of the following correctly identifies the primary way in which oxygen is transported to the cells?
**Red blood cell
**White blood cell
RED BLOOD CELL
For a patient reliant on the hypoxic drive to breathe, the respiratory rate will increase when ______________
OXYGEN LEVELS DECREASE
When assessing a sick 3-week old baby, which finding would be most concerning?
**Fontanelle level with the skkull
**Rectal temperatrure of 99.4
**Mucus occluding both nares
**Soft spot to the top of the head
MUCUS OCCLUDING BOTH NARES
you are assessing a 4 year old with a fever and cough. The child is very calm and receptive to your presence. Which of the following acitons would be most appropriate?
**Have the mother remain with him for the assessment
**Refrain from touching the patient until the ambulance
**Take the child to the ambulance for assessment
**Ask teh mother to leave until the assessment is complete
have the motehr remain with him for the assessment
You are en route to a home for an 8 year old with "noisy" breathing and a cough. As you respond, which of the following pieces of advice would you give your partner, a new EMT?
** The scene probably will be chaotic, so let's just get to the patient out to the ambulanse and assess him there
**We will need to be careful. children of this age group tend to throw tantrums, and we could get hurt if we asre not careful
**Although most children of this age are trusting of authoity, let's apporach slowly and make the scene work for us
**Most children in this aGE GROUP HAVE A SHORT ATTENTION SPAN, SO WE NEED TO ASSESS HIM AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE
ALTHOUGH MOST CHILDREN OF THIS AGE ARE TRUSTING OF AUTHORITY, LET'S APPROACH SLOWLY AND MAKE THE SCENE WORK FOR US
You have been asked to speak to a local EMT calss about caring for the patient over the age of 60 years. when presenting your material, what point would you emphasize?
The majority of persons in this age group enjoy independent living
You have received a grant to promote healthy living habits among the 20 to 40 year old age group. given the most common cause of death within this age group, which topic should be the focus of your program?
You have been called for a 2 week old baby whose mother feels as though he is sick. When assessign the patient and obtaining a history form the mother, which of the following would be most concerning?
**You observe that the baby seems to breathe only though his nose
**The fontanelles are lower than the level of the skull
**The father states that the baby feeds every 2-3 hours
**He has lost weight since he was born
The fontanelles are lower than the level of the skull
When assessing a neonate, which of the following would deserve closer investigation?
Heart rate of 92 beats per minute
Teh average years of life remaining based on an individual's date of birth is called ___________________
You are transporting a 3 week old male, with a fever and cough, to the hospital. when calling a radio report, you would advise the emergency department that you are bringing them _______________
Which of the folowing would be categorized as a toddler?
**48 month old male
** 6 month old female
** 4.5 year old male
**28 month old male
28 MONTH OLD MALE
PUBERTY IS BEST DESCRIBED AS __________________
maturation of the sexual organs
You are caring for a 6 month old male who is fussy, crying, and has a fever. What would be most appropriate?
**distract the baby with a small toy or ball so that you can assess hi
*Keep the parents calm even though it is the baby you are caring for
**Wait for the baby to stop crying so that you can properly asses him
**Talk to the parents and not the baby since a stranger's voice is upsetting
Keep the parents calm even though it is the baby you are caring for.
The systolic blood pressure of a 4 year old girl is 86 mmHg. Her mother is ocncerned because last year at the pediatrician's office the systolic blood pressure was 72 mmHg and now it is higher. How would you respond?
"Her blood pressure will increase naturally. This is normal and healthy"
You are at the residecne of a nalert and oriented 87 year old female who is very short of breath but is refusing to go to the hospital. rather, she wants you to treat her at home and then leave when she feels better> As an EMT knowledgeable of the characteristics and behaviors of this age group, you would become suspicious that her request is based on the fact that she__________________
IS CONCERNED THAT SHE MAY BE GIVING UP THE INDEPENDENCE OF LIVING IN HER HOME
A 23 year old male has been shot with a rifle. The bullet entered his chest just above the left nipple and exited his body just left of his lumbar spine. Proper documentation of this injury would include ___________________
ENTRY WOUND TO THE ANTERIOR THORAX
A female patient has suffered a stroke to the right side of her brain and has paralysis to the contralateral portion of her body. Which of the following is true?
**She cant move her arms or legs
**She cannot move her left arm and leg
**She is paralyzed on the right side of her body
**Her left and right legs are paralyzed
She cannot move her left arm and leg
Another EMT informs you that a patient has bee nstabbed once with a knife in the midaxillary region. Where is this injury located?
Left lateral chest
Which plane would show the liver, stomach, and spleen?
What best describes the anatomical position?
Standing with the arms down at the side and palms facing forward
A patient informs you that he injured a tendon in his knee three years ago and has had a difficult itme walking since You recognize that this injury involves a structure that _______________
CONNECTS MUSCLES TO THE KNEE
Involuntary or smooth muscles are found on which of the following structures?
**Central nervous system
**Muscles of the arms and legs
**Heart and blood vessels
**Blood vessels and intestines
BLOOD VESSELS AND INTESTINES
A patient has fracutred bones in his left leg. What bones could be broken?
FEMUR, TIBIA, OR FIBULA
Following radiation therapy for breast cancer, a female has a low white blodo cell count. What condition does this place her at risk to acquire?
A patient has severe swelling of the leafe shaped flap that helps prevent food from entering the lower respiratory system. Knowing that the suffix "itis" refers to inflammation, which one of the following conditions is the patient suffering form?
The terms occipital, parietal, and front al refer to which part of the body?
A patient experiencing thoracic spine pain has pain in his ___________________
You are assessing a patient with an obvious left midshaft femur fracture. The most immediate threate to this patient's well being is _______________
In which one of the followign body systems are the thyroid glands, adrenal glands, pituitary glands, and gonads located?
The spinal collumn is composed of what sections described from superior to inferior?
The nervous system is subdivided into the _____________________
Central and peripheral systems
What is the fluid that carries blood cells and nutrients?
The bones of the upper extremities include ____________________
HUMERUS AND RADIUS
Which of the following is the vessel that carries oxygen depleted blood to the right atrium?
A patient is complaining of extreme dizziness and headache. Which one of the following conditions is mot likely to be responsible for this complaint?
**Occlusion of the carotid arteries
**Occlusion of the popiteal vein
**Clot in teh abdominal aorta
**Rupture of the radial vein
Occlusion of the carotid arteries
The EMT shows correct understanding of the circulatory system when he identifes the primary function of the heart as _________________
PUMPING BLOOD THROUGHOUT THE BODY
The left side of a patient's heart is in severe failure, causing blood to back up behind it. what sign or symptom are you most likely to observe?
CRACKLES IN THE LUNGS
Which one of the following statements regarding the integumentary system is true?
**The skin contains four layers: epidermal, dermal, subcutaneous, and nerve layer
** The epidermis is the thickest and most important layer of teh skin
**The dermal layer is the most outermost layer of teh skin and contains sensory nerves
**The skin protects the body agains bacteria and other organisms
THE SKIN PROTECTS THE BODY AGAINS BACTERIA AND OTEHR ORGANISMS
Which one of the following is a beta1 sympathetic effect?
**Increased heart rate
INCREASED HEART RATE
Which action produces inhalation?
**Pressure in the chest increases
**Chest cavity decreases in size
**Intercostal muscles relax
As you arrive on scene, an EMR informs you that the patient has agonal respirations. By this description, you would expect the patient's breathing to be ______________________
DEEP AND GASPING
A patient with kidney failure has lost his ability to __________________
Filter and excrete wastes
A patient with bronchitis is suffering from __________________
INFLAMMATION OF THE BRONCHIOLES
A PATIENT WITH A CALCANEAL FRACTURE HAS BROKEN _______________