Flashcards in Module 2 Exam Review Deck (70):
_____________ is the term used to describe a patient that is lying face up
______________ is the term that is used to describe a patient that is lying face down
______________ is a term that refers to the left or right of the midline, or away from the midline, or to the side of the body.
____________ is a term that means toward the midline or center of the body.
Where are the plantar reflexes located?
On the soles of the feet
How should you position a patient in the lateral recumbent position?
You must be sure to place the patient on the side so that you can easily monitor the airway. Also, be careful not to allow excessive pressure on the chest that might impair the breathing status of the patient.
______________ is the term that means distant, or far from the point of reference.
_______________ is the term that means near the point of reference.
What is the anatomical position?
It's a position in which the patient is standing erect, facing forward, with arms down at the sides and palms forward.
If your patient has impaired ability of the involuntary muscles to contract, what body system would this affect?
The nervous system, but more specifically the AUTONOMIC nervous system.
If your patient suffers form a muscular disease and cannot walk, are these muscles affected voluntary or involuntary muscles?
What are the five segments to the spinal column?
What is contained in the larynx?
The larynx houses the vocal cords and is located inferior to the pharynx and superior to the trachea.
What is inhalation?
It's the active process of breathing air into the lungs.
What is exhalation?
It's the passive process of breathing air out of the lungs.
What happens during the process of inhalation?
During inhalation the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles (the muscles between the ribs) contract, in-creasing the size of the thoracic cavity. The diaphragm moves slightly downward, flaring the lower portion of the rib cage, which moves upward and outward. This creates a negative pressure in the chest, which causes air to flow into the lungs.
What happens during the process of exhalation?
During exhalation the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax, decreasing the size of the thoracic cavity. The diaphragm moves upward; the ribs move downward and inward, creating a positive pres-sure within the thorax and causing air to flow out of the lungs
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
The respiratory is responsible for breathing in oxygen from the air and transporting it to the alveoli.
It is also responsible for eliminating the Carbon Dioxide
What are the bones of the upper extremities?
The upper limbs, including the shoulders, arms, forearms, wrists, and hands, are called the upper extremities.
What are the differences between the pediatric airway and the adult airway?
The trachea and lower airway passages of infants and children are narrower, softer, and more flexible than those of adults.
What are the upper chambers of the heart called?
What does the right atrium do?
The right atrium receives oxygen-depleted blood from the veins of the body.
What does the left atrium do?
The left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the pulmonary veins from the lungs.
What are the lower chambers of the heart termed?
What does the right ventricle do?
The right ventricle pumps oxygen-depleted blood to the pulmonary arter-ies, which transport the blood to the lungs where it will be oxygenated.
What does the left ventricle do?
The left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood to the major artery from the heart, the aorta, from which the blood is gradually delivered to all body cells.
If a patient is tachypneic, is he breathing fast or slow?
The breathing rate is faster than normal
What is bronchitis?
Inflammation of the bronchi or of the lower airway
What is epinephrine?
It's a natural hormone that, when used as a medication, constricts blood vessels to improve blood pressure, reduces leakage from blood vessels, relaxes smooth muscle in the bronchioles, and increases the heart rate and force of ventricular contractions.
Beta1 sympathetic effect does what on the body?
Beta1 effects all relate to the heart. They increase the heart rate, increase the force of cardiac contraction, and speed up the electrical impulse traveling down the heart’s conduction system.
What is an abrasion, and what layer of the skin does it affect?
An abrasion is an open injury to the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis) caused by a scraping away, rubbing, or shearing away of the tissue.
What is a fracture of the knee cap called?
Patellar Fracture (maybe)
What is degenerative disk disease?
Degeneration of one or more intervertebral discs of the spine
What are the four functions of the skeletal system?
Giving the body its shape
Protecting the vital internal organs
Allowing for movement
Storing minerals and producing blood cells
What are some signs and symptoms of an orbital fracture?
Diplopia (double vision)
A marked de-crease in vision
Loss of sensation above the eyebrow, over the cheek, or in the upper lip
Tenderness to palpation
A bony “step-off” (defect in smooth contour of bone); or paralysis of upward gaze in the involved eye (the patient’s eye will not be able to follow your finger upward).
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What are the 6 organs associated with the endocrine system?
ISLETS OF LANGERHANS
What is the sinoatrial node in the heart?
It's a node where the electrical impulse for the heart originates
What are the five functions of the musculoskeletal system?
To give the body shape
To protect the internal organs
To provide for movement
To store salts and other materials needed for metabolism
To produce red blood cells necessary for oxygen transport
What is the first organ affected when your blood sugar begins to drop?
What are the functions of the cerebrum?
It controls specific body functions, such as sensation, thought, and associative memory. It also initiates and manages motions that are under the conscious con-trol of the individual.
What is the major artery of the thigh?
Which heart valve causes backup of blood in the lung tissue?
What is anaerobic metabolism?
It is the breakdown of molecules in the cell WITHOUT the presence of oxygen.
_______________ the pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle contracts.
_________________ the pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle is at rest.
What are functions of baroreceptors?
Detect changes in blood pressure
The baroreceptors, having thus detected the change in blood pressure, send impulses to the cardioregulatory and vasomotor centers in the brainstem to make compensatory alterations in the blood pressure.
What is narrowed pulse pressure?
A narrow pulse pressure is defined as being less than 25 percent of the systolic blood pressure reading.
What causes an syncope episode to occur?
An overwhelming influence of the parasympathetic nervous system that causes blood vessels to dilate throughout the body.
What is the epiglottitis?
An inflammation affecting the upper airway, can be an acute, severe, life-threatening condition if left untreated.
How is oxygen transported to the cells?
What is hypoxic drive?
A form of respiratory drive in which the body uses oxygen chemoreceptors instead of carbon dioxide receptors to regulate the respiratory cycle.
(refer to page 175 for a more in-depth answer)
What can cause of acidosis?
How does the body compensate with a high fever with increased amounts of CO2?
Increased Respiratory Rate
What is lung compliance?
A measure of the lung's ability to stretch and expand
What do cells in aerobic metabolism need?
What is perfusion?
Perfusion is the delivery of oxygen and other nutrients to the cells of all organ systems, which results from the constant adequate circulation of blood through the capillaries.
What are some common situations that arise during the middle age bracket?
Read page 198
What is a 13 year-old classified as?
What is bulimia?
Eating and deliberately throwing up
What are some characteristics of the elderly?
Read page 198
What stage of life does the chronic illnesses begin to develop?
What is the treatment of a 6 month old child?
Read page 192
What are some characteristics of a toddler?
Read page 194
What is the age range for the toddler age group?
1-3 years of age
What are some of the physiological changes in the neonate after birth?
Refer to page 193
What are the steps in ventilating an 18 year old?
Refer to page 196
What is the respiration rate for a neonate?
30-40 respirations per minute
What is the common threat to a female being 40-60 years of age?
What should you do first when treating a 15 year old?
Get consent from the parent