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Flashcards in Chemicals used in Funeral Profession Deck (47):
1

A narcotic in high concentrations which can cause skin irritation from defatting of tissue. Prolonged inhalation can cause headache, dryness, and throat irritation. A dangerous fire risk when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers

Acetone

2

This material belongs to the chemical family "quaternary ammonium compounds". It is a skin and eye irritant. It has moderate to high oral toxicity and is moderately toxic via skin absorption

Alkyl dimethylbenzyl Ammonium Chloride

3

Formerly known as red dye #2, this member of the azo dye family is a suspect of human carcinogen. It is no longer acceptable in food, drugs, or cosmetics

Amaranth

4

Moderate to low oral toxicity. Listed by IARC and NTP as a possible carcinogen

Amitrole

5

Mildly irritating to skin; can be absorbed via skin contact. It is a strong respiratory and eye irritant. Exposure may result in transient corneal clouding. Repeated overexposure can yield fatigue, headache, nausea, and tremor. It is a moderate fire risk; will react with oxidizers

2-Butoxyethanol

6

High to moderate ingestion hazard. Local exposure may cause irritation

Camphor

7

High to moderate skin/eye irritation. Can be corrosive to tissue. High to moderate respiratory irritation. They are Strong oxidizers and are highly reactive. They can be a serious fire risk when exposed to reducing agents (i.e. acids) or petroleum derivatives

Chlorine Salts

8

Formerly used as an anaesthetic, the material causes CNS depression, skin and eye irritation. Prolonged exposure can lead to cardiac and respiratory arrest, paralysis. Chronic exposure may cause live damage. Listed in IARC and NTP as a possible carcinogen

Chloroform

9

The health effects are similar to those of phenol, but not quite as severe. It is corrosive to skin, eyes, mucous membranes, capable of causing burns at point of contact. The material can be absorbed through the skin. Chronic low-level exposure can cause skin rash and discoloration. Systemically, chronic low level exposure can cause GI disturbances, nervous system disturbances, kidney and liver damage. It is a moderate fire hazard; Can react vigorously with oxidizing materials

Cresol

10

A severe eye irritant, mild skin irritant, moderately toxic via ingestion. It can react with oxidizers

Diethanolamine

11

A skin/eye irritant. Highly toxic via inhalation. It can react with oxidizers

Diethylene glycol

12

It is a strong irritant to skin and other tissues. It is readily absorbed thru skin contact. Absorption via inhalation/skin contact can cause gastrointestinal disturbances, facial flushing, elevated blood pressure, CNS effects, liver and kidney damage.
It is a moderate fire risk. It can be an explosion hazard when exposed to flame and is reactive with a variety of halogenated materials and organics

Methylformamide

13

Causes eye irritation. Causes irritation to the mucous linings of the eyes, gums, respiratory tract. It can act as a mild narcotic and can cause dermatitis.
Repeated overexposures can cause conjunctivitic and corneal clouding. High concentrations can cause congestion of the liver and kidneys. It is a dangerous fire risk.

Ethyl Acetate

14

Is familiar as the alcohol in beverages. Oxidized by the liver to form carbon dioxide and water. It is generally not considered and occupational health hazard,, however, it is a safety hazard due to its flammability

Ethyl Alcohol

15

Found in products as either the tetra sodium or disodium salt. They react chemically to bind calcium, which inhibits the blood clotting mechanism. It is a skin irritant, causing dryness and cracking

Ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid

16

Toxic via inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption. It is a strong irritant to skin and eyes. It is a dangerous fire risk. It is listed in IARC as a possible carcinogen

Ethylene dichloride

17

Moderately irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Very toxic via inhalation, which can produce CNS depression and damage to blood forming organs. Does not readily volatize at room temperature, and inhalation would be likely only by heating or mechanical action (mist)
Ingestion can cause initial CNS excitement, followed by CNS excitement, followed by CNS depression; respiratory, renal, and cardiac failure. Brain damage may also result from ingestion.
Chronic exposure can cause anorexia, decreased urinary output, and nystagmus.
Combustible. Can react violently with certain acids and oxidizers

Ethylene Glycol

18

Moderately toxic via inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption. May cause conjunctivitis, transient corneal clouding, and upper respiratory tract irritation

Ethylene glycol-monomethyl ether

19

Severe irritant via all routes of entry. A known sensitizer/allergen. Contact with eyes may cause corneal clouding, permanent eye damage. Skin contact can cause a cracked, white, scaly dermatitis. chronic exposure can cause a hardening and tanning of skin. Sensitive persons can develop an allergic eczematous dermatitis and hives.
Ingestion can yield severe inflammation of nose, eyes, mouth, throuat, and stomach often accompanied by severe stomach pain. Can be fatal
Inhalation can yield severe eye and throat irritation, difficulty in breathing, also coughing and burning in the throat and eye tearing. Prolonged or repeated exposures can yield respiratory impairment. In higher concentrations, symptoms can include pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, also asthma and bronchitis. Cancer hazard associated with nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and lung cancers in humans.
Moderate fire and explosion risk when exposed to heat or flame. Can react violently with strong oxidizers

Formaldehyde

20

Corrosive to skin, eyes, mucous membranes. Moderate to high oral toxicity and can be absorbed through the skin. Moderate fire risk

Formic Acid

21

Properties are similar to formaldehyde. Severe skin and eye irritant. Moderately toxic via inhalation and ingestion

Glutaraldehyde

22

An eye, skin, and mucous membrane irritant. Moderately toxic via inhalation, ingestion. Large oral does can produce narcosis.
Low fire risk. Can react with oxidizing materials

Hesylene Glycol

23

A simple asphyxiant, this material is otherwise practically non-toxic. It is, however, a dangerous fire risk when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers

Isobutane

24

An eye, nose, and throat irritant. In high concentrations, it can induce a mild narcosis, corneal burns, and eye damage. The material dries the skin by defatting the tissue. It is moderately toxic via ingestion.
Ingestion or inhalation of heavy vapor concentrations can cause flushing and CNS depression. 100 ml can be fatal
A dangerous fire risk and moderate explosion risk when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers

Isopropyl Alcohol

25

A skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritant. Skin can become dry and cracked from the defatting action. Moderately toxic via inhalation, moderate to high toxicity via ingestion. The main target is the CNS, particularly the eyes, optic nerve, and possibly the retina. Overexposure can cause CNS depression, blurred vision, conjunctivities, photophobia, eye lesions, peripheral neuritis, and GI tract disturbances. Severe overexposure can cause CNS depression, cardiac depression.
Sufficient daily intake can lead to cumulative exposure symptoms
Dangerous fire and explosion risk when exposed to heat, flame, and oxidizers

Methyl Alcohol

26

Irritant to skin, repeated exposure can cause a dry, scaly dermatitis. Vapor can cause eye, nose, and throat irritation. Has a moderate oral toxicity. Inhalation is an important hazard. Narcotic by inhalation, affecting both CNS and peripheral nerves.
Dangerous fire risk and moderate explosion risk when exposed to heat, spark, or flame. Can react violently with aldehydes, acids

Methyl Ethyl Ketone (2-Butenone - MEK)

27

Moderate Oral toxicity
Moderate skin/eye irritant
Used commonly as a bacteriocide/fungicide

2-2' Methylene bis (4) Chlorophenol (dichlorophene)

28

High oral toxicity, very dangerous to the eyes, causing corrosion of eye tissue. Because the material vaporizes readily, inhalation is an important hazard. The most common symptoms reported among exposed workers are symptoms of CNS depression, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and a "drunken" feeling.
The material can also irritate the respiratory tract, can cause liver damage, and can exacerbate coronary artery disease. Chronic exposure can cause dermatitis, CNS and liver damage

Methylene Chloride (dichloromethane)

29

Moderately toxic via ingestion
Moderately irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes.
Repeated contact may cause chapping, photosensitivity
Mist is highly irritating to the respiratory tract
Symptoms of overexposure often resemble drunkenness
Symptoms of overexposure include headache, nausea, dizziness, indigestion, lack of appetite
Highly dangerous fire risk when exposed to heat, flame, or spark
Incompatible with strong oxidizers

Mineral Spirits (naphtha)

30

Generally considered a nuisance dust
However, some components are known to induce pneumoconiosis after prolonged or repeated exposures

Molding Plaster
Mixture of gypsum, limestone, portland cement, starch, and other related materials

31

A dangerous fire and explosion hazard when in dry form
Les flammable when wet

Nitrocellulose

32

Moderately toxic via inhalation, ingestion
Irritating to skin, eyes, conjunctiva, upper respiratory tract.
Acute exposure can induce symptoms of narcosis
REpeated or prolonged skin contact with liquid can cause burns
Chronic exposure may cause lung, liver, kidney damage
Moderate fire risk when exposed to heat or flame and can react violently with oxidizing materials

Orthodichlorobenze

33

Highly irritating and caustic to skin tissues.
Damage is characterized by cracks, fissures, slow healing ulcerations, blue skin and yellowish, brittle nails
Highly irritating to tissue via ingestion
Can cause corrosion of mucous membranes, severe GI disturbances.
Acute poisoning can result
Major effects from the inhalation of dusts and mists are corrosion and ulceration of nose and throat tissue, severe eye irritation, epistaxis, headache, nervousness
Chronic exposure can cause upper respiratory and GI disturbances, albuminuria, gradual weight loss, and nervous system disturbances

Oxalic Acid

34

Moderately toxic via inhalation
Symptoms include irritation of skin, eyes, and upper respiratory tract
Prolonged or chronic skin exposure can cause burns
In liquid form, it can be absorbed through the skin
Chronic exposure can cause liver, kidney, and lung damage
It is a moderate fire risk and is incompatible with oxidizers

Paradichlorobenzene

35

A formaldehyde polymer that can evolve formaldehyde when heated
It is a moderate fire risk and can react with oxidizers
Has moderate oral toxicity, low dermal toxicity

Paraformaldehyde

36

Moderately toxic via oral/dermal routes
Is a skin and eye irritants
Slightly flammable

Paratertiaypently phenol

37

Highly irritating and corrosive to tissue.
Contact site will become white, soft, wrinkled, with a delayed intense burning sensation followed by local anesthesia and possibly gangrene
Absorbed readily through skin which has resulted in fatal overexposure
Contact with the eye can cause severe damage and blindness
High toxic via ingestion
Corrosion and possible perforation of lips, mouth, and severe abdominal cramps
Inhalation of vapor is highly irritating to eyes and respiratory tract
Systemic effects from all routes of exposure include CNS depression, weakness, headache, dizziness, tinnitus, weak pulse, dyspnea, cyanosis, shock, frothing from nose and mouth, lung edema, possibly deaht
Chronic poisoning can result in GI disturbances, nervous disorders, skin rash, and discoloration
Liver, kidney, spleen, pancreatic damage may occur
Chronic dermatitis from contact is common
Moderate fire risk when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers

Phenol

38

A simple asphyxiant
At very high concentrations, it can cause CNS depression
Dangerous fire and explosion risk when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers

Propane

39

A skin an eye irritant

Propylene Glycol

40

Prolonged, repeated exposure to quartz can lead to the development of silicosis, characterized by fibrosis of lungs
Silicosis is characterized by shortness of breath and a troublesome unproductive cough
Can react violently with certain fluorine containing compounds

Quartz

41

Examples include n-Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, n-Alkyl dimethylethylbenzyl ammonium chloride, and benzethonium chloride

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

42

Strongly irritating and corrosive to tissue
Strong oxidizing agent that will react violently with organic materials and reducers

Sodium Hypochlorite

43

Widely used as a fungicide and disinectant, the material has high toxicity via inhalation and ingestion
Highly irritating to the skin

Sodium pentachlorophenate

44

Mainly regarded as a nuisance dust, prolonged or repeated exposure may lead to talc pneumoconiosis, although the mechanisms of inducement is unclear

Talc

45

Skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritant
Prolonged or repeated contact can cause defatting of skin
Overexposure can produce narcosis, CNS depression, headache, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, incoordination, and a burning sensation to the skin
Acute poisoning, however, is rare
Dangerous fire risk when exposed to heat, spark, or flame

Toluene (Dimethylbenzene)

46

A moderate skin and eye irritant
Defatting action on the skin can cause a dry, fissured dermatitis
Systemic effects include CNS depression, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination, psychological disturbances
Material can also cause GI disturbances and sensitize the ehart to epinephrine induced arrythmias
High dose can cause narcosis, heart failure

(111) Trichloroethane

47

A strong eye and skin irritant
Repeated skin exposure can cause dermatitis
The material can be absorbed by skin contact
Overexposure can cause CNS depression, headache, dizziness, vertigo, tremors, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, irregular heartbeat
Symptoms may resemble alcohol intoxication
Addiction and peripheral neuropathy have been reported
Chronic exposure can damage the liver and other organs

Trichloroethylene