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Flashcards in Must Know Information - Vocab Deck (189):
1

Antemortem injuries resulting from friction of the skin against a firm object resulting in the removal of the epidermis

Abrasion

2

The process of taking in, as in a colored object which absorbs certain rays of light and reflects other rays giving the object its recognizable color

Absorption

3

Group of chemicals used in addition to vascular and cavity embalming fluids; includes but is not limited to hardening compounds, preservative powders, sealing agents, mold preventative agents, and pack application agents

Accessory Chemical

4

These levels are established to ensure adequate protection of employees at exposures below the the OSHA limits, but to minimize the compliance burdens for employers whose employees have exposures below the 8 hour permissible exposure limit (PEL)
For formaldehyde, this is .5 ppm

Action Level/Al-Exposure Limits

5

Dyes which aid in restoring a life-like surface pigmentation to a body and also stain the body tissue cells

Active Dyes
Staining Dyes
Cosmetic Dyes

6

That pressure which is indicated by the injector gauge needle when the arterial tube is open and the arterial solution is flowing into the body

Actual Pressure

7

A disease with a more or less rapid onset and short duration

Acute

8

Soft whitish crumbly or greasy material that forms upon the postmortem hydrolysis and hydrogenation of body fats

Adipocere
Grave Wax

9

Assimilation of gas, vapor, or dissolved matter by the surface of a solid or liquid

Adsorption

10

In the presence of free oxygen

Aerobic

11

Period immediately before somatic death

Agonal Period

12

Method of injection drainage in which embalming solution is injected and then injection is stopped while drainage is open which is a type of restricted drainage

Intermittent Drainage

13

In the absence of free oxygen

Anaerobic

14

Severe generalized edema

Anasarca

15

A descriptive reference for locating arteries and veins by means of anatomical structures which are known

Anatomical Guide

16

Points of origin and points of termination in relation to adjacent structures; used to designate the boundaries of arteries

Anatomical Limits

17

The body is erect, feet together, palms facing forward, and thumbs are pointed away from the body

Anatomical Position

18

Before Death

Antemortem

19

Ingredient of embalming fluids that retards the natural postmortem tendency of blood to become more viscous or prevents adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals

Anticoagulant fluid

20

A non-toxic disinfectant suitable for the use on animal tissue

Antiseptic

21

Death brought about by the cessation of respiration or improper functioning of the respiratory apparatus
One of the three modes of death described by Bichat

Apnea

22

Condition in which the manifestations of life are feebly maintained

Apparent Death

23

A solution in which water is the solvent

Aqueous Solution

24

The concentrated, preservative embalming chemical that will be diluted with water to form the arterial solution for injection into the arterial system during vascular embalming

Arterial (Vascular) Fluid

25

The purpose of this is for inactivating saprophytic bacteria and rendering the body tissues less susceptible to decomposition

Arterial (Vascular) Fluid

26

The mixture of arterial (vascular) fluid and water which is used for the arterial injection and may include supplemental fluids

Arterial Solution

27

The term applied to a number of pathological conditions causing a thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries

Arteriosclerosis

28

Accumulation of serous fluids in the peritoneal cavity

Ascites

29

Insufficient intake of oxygen resulting from numerous causes aka Apnea

Asphyxia

30

Indicates a weakness or feebleness of any organ or function

Asthenia

31

Fatty degeneration or thickening of the walls of the larger arteries occurring in atherosclerosis

Atheroma

32

A form of arteriosclerosis marked by the deposition of lipids in the inner layer of arterial walls

Atherosclerosis

33

The presence of bacteria in the blood

Bacteremia

34

Resins combined with oil; a fragrant, resinous, oily exudate from various trees and plants

Balsamic Substance

35

Base of the Axillary Space

Arm Pit

36

Established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which envelops the lateral border of the pectoralis major muscle

Anterior Boundary

37

Established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which envelops the lateral border of the latissimus dorsi muscle

Posterior Boundary

38

Established by drawing a line which connects the two points where the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the chest wall

Medial Boundary

39

Established by drawing a line which connects the two points where the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the arm

Lateral Boundary

40

A network of stitches which cross the borders of a cavity or excission to anchor fillers and to sustain tissues in their proper position

Basket Weave Suture
Cross Stitch

41

Acute, deep-seated inflammation in the skin which usually begins as a subcutaneous swelling in a hair follicle

Boil aka Furuncle

42

Individual stitch knotted at the tissue edge; may be applied prior to embalming to align tissues

Bridge Suture aka Temporary Interrupted Suture

43

An injury caused by a blow without laceration; a contusion

Bruise (Ecchymosis)

44

Vestibule of the oral cavity; the space between the lips, gums, and teeht

Buccal Cavity

45

General deterioration of the body; a state of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting
May occur in many chronic diseases as certain malignancies and advanced pulmonary tuberculosis
Wasting Syndrome

Cachexia

46

Dead human body used for medical purposes
Including transplantation, anatomical dissection, and study

Cadaver

47

A prolongation of the last violent contraction of the muscles into the rigidity of death aka instantaneous rigor mortis

Cadaveric Spasm

48

The dome-like superior portion of the cranium; that portion removed during cranial autopsy

Calvarium

49

Circumscribed inflammation of the skin and deeper tissues that ends in suppuration and is accompanied by systemic symptoms, such as fever and leukocytosis; Several communicating boils of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with the production and discharge of pus and dead tissue

Carbuncle

50

The total sum of those considerations given the case at hand, beginning before the embalming procedure is begun and continuing throughout the operation

Case Analysis

51

A condition in which the vital signs of life are feebly maintained and there is a waxy rigidity of the body

Catalepsy

52

An embalming instrument which is connected to a bottle of cavity fluid to aid in injecting the cavity fluid into the various cavities of the body

Cavity Injector

53

The center of fluid distribution is

Ascending and/or arch of the aorta

54

The center of venous drainage is

Right atrium of the heart

55

A disease with a more or less slow onset and long duration

Chronic

56

An influential person in medical embalming who published a book about a method of embalming without evisceration

Gabrial Clauderus

57

A phase of somatic death lasting from 5-6 minutes during which life may be restored

Clinical Death

58

Anaerobic, saprophytic, spore-forming bacterium responsible for tissue gas; referred to as a gas bacillus

Clostridium Perfrindens

59

The injection of a specialized chemical in conjunction with the routine arterial chemical

Co-injection

60

A fluid used primarily to supplement and enhance the action of vascular (arterial) solutions

Co-injection Fluid

61

The irreversible cessation of brain activity and loss of consciousness; death beginning at the brain

Coma

62

Disinfection practices carried out during the embalming process

Concurrent Disinfection

63

Method of drainage in which drainage occurs continuously during vascular (arterial) injection

Concurrent Drainage

64

Mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the white portion of the eye

Conjunctiva

65

Transparent part of the tunic of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light into the interior

Cornea

66

That portion of the cornea recovered for transplantation. The cornea and sclera considered together comprising the tunica fibrosa or firbrous coat of the eye

Corneal Sclera Button

67

Legal term referring to a dead human body

Corpse

68

An official of a local community who holds inquests concerning sudden, violent, and unexplained deaths

Coroner

69

Having an abnormal amount o fat on the body

Corpulence aka Obesity

70

That part of the human skull which ecloses the brain

Cranium

71

A luminous appearance like a candle flame, superstitiously thought to prestage death

Death Candle

72

A kind of ignis fatuus (glow) supposed to forebode death

Death Fire

73

Decomposition of proteins by enzymes of aerobic bacteria

Decay

74

Separation of compounds into simpler substances by the action of microbial and/or autolytic enzymes

Decomposition

75

Chemicals having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant one

Deodorants
Masking Agents
Perfuming Agents

76

The deep layer of skin under the epidermis

Derma
Dermis
Skin
Corium
True Skin

77

Separation of substances in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane

Dialysis
Selective Diffusion

78

The movement of molecules or other particles in solution from an area of greater concentration until uniform concentration is reached

Diffusion

79

Passage of some components of the injected embalming solution from an intravascular to an extravascular location; movements of the embalming solutions from the capillaries into the interstitial fluids

Diffusion Solution

80

Anatomical terms describing fingers and toes

Digits

81

An agent, usually chemical, applied to inanimate objects/surfaces to destroy disease causing microbial agents, but usually not bacterial spores

Disinfectant

82

The destruction and/or inhibition of most pathogenic organisms and their products in or on the body

Disinfection

83

The movement of embalming solutions from the point of injection throughout the arterial system and into the capillaries

Distribution Solution

84

Condition that results when the body part that dies and little blood and remains aseptic and occurs when the arteries but not the veins are obstructed

Dry Gangrene

85

Abnormal accumulation of fluids in tissue or body cavities

Edema
Dropsy

86

Free floating object in the blood stream

Embolism

87

Procedures that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogen hazard from the workplace such as sharps disposal container, self-sheathing needles

Engineering Controls

88

An organic catalyst produced by living cells and capable of autolytic decomposition

Enzyme

89

The outermost layer of skin
Cuticle or scarf skin

Epidermis

90

A microorganism that prefers an environment devoid of oxygen but has adapted so that it can live and grow in the presence of oxygen

Facultative Aerobe

91

An organism that prefers an oxygen environment but is capable of living and growing in its absence

Facultative Anaerobe

92

Removal of particles (liquid or solid) from a solution, as it passes through a membrane or other partial barrier

Filtration

93

The movement of arterial solution through the capillaries into the intercellular spaces, from an intravascular to an extravascular position

Fluid Diffusion

94

The movement of the arterial solution from the point of injection through the blood vascular system

Fluid Distribution

95

Colorless, strong smelling gas that when used in solution is a powerful preservative and disinfectant; a potential occupational carcinogen

Formaldehyde
HCHO
CH2O

96

An influential person in medical embalming who was the first to make embalming available to the public and who also wrote the first embalming text

Jean Gannal

97

Necrosis, death of tissues of part of the body usually due to deficient or absent blood supply

Gangrene

98

Condition that results when the body part that dies had little blood and remains aseptic; the arteries but not the veins are obstructed

Dry Gangrene

99

Necrotic tissue that is wet as a result of inadequate venous drainage; may be accompanied by bacterial infection

Wet Gangrene

100

Antemortem necrosis in a wound infected by an anaerobic gas forming bacillus, the most common etiologic agent being clostridium perfringens

Gas Gangrene

101

Extravascular movement of preservative fluids by gravitational force to the dependent areas of the body

Gravity Filtration

102

Chemical in powder form that has the ability to absorb and to preserve

Hardening Compound

103

An influential person in medical embalming who translated Gannal's text into english and promoted embalming for sanitary purposes

Richard Harlan

104

An influential person in medical embalming who discovered the circulation of blood in 1628

Dr. William Harvey

105

The non protein portion of hemoglobin; the red pigment of the hemoglobin

Heme

106

The red respiratory portion of the red blood cells; iron containing pigment of red blood cells functioning to carry oxygen to the cells

Hemoglobin

107

Destruction of red blood cells that liberates hemoglobin

Hemolysis

108

An influential person in medical embalming who is regarded as the"Father of Modern Embalming," and "Father of Embalming in the United States"

Dr. Thomas Holmes

109

Body of a deceased person, including cremated remains

Human Remains

110

Chemical that increases the ability of embalmed tissue to retain moisture

Humectant

111

An influential person in medical embalming for whom Hunter's Canal is named

John Hunter

112

An influential person in medical embalming who is acknowledged as the first person to successfully adopt a method of arterial injection to preserve

Dr. William Hunter

113

A solution having a greater concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared

Hypertonic Solution

114

Antemortem and/or postmortem settling of the blood and/or other fluids to dependent portions of the body

Hypostasis

115

A solution having a lesser concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared

Hypotonic Solution

116

A preparation aid used in mouth closure
It is inserted into a needle injector and forced into the mandible and maxilla

Injector Needle

117

A type of suture used to close incisions in such a manner that the ligature remains entirely under the epidermis

Intradermal Suture
Hidden Stitch

118

Between the cells of a structure

Intercellular

119

Space between the ribs

Intercostal Space

120

Method of drainage in which the drainage is stopped at intervals while the injection continues; a type of restricted drainage

Intermittent Drainage

121

Fluid in the supporting connective tissues surrounding body cells

Interstitial Fluid

122

Within a cell or cells

Intracellular

123

A solution having an equal concentration of dissolved solute to that of a standard of reference

Isotonic Solution

124

Conditions characterized by excessive concentrations of bilirubin in the skin and tissues and deposition of excessive bile pigment in the skin, cornea, body fluids, and mucous membranes with the resulting yellow appearance of the patient

Jaundice
Icterus

125

Wound characterized by irregular tearing of tissue

Laceration

126

A fine growth of downy hair which is sometimes found on the face of a baby

Lanugo

127

Any change in structure produced during the course of a disease or injury

Lesion

128

A chronic or acute disease of unregulated clonal proliferation of the stem cells of the blood forming tissues; resident cells eventually replaced by tumor cells

Leukemia

129

Increase in number of leukocytes in the blood, generally caused by infection and usually transient

Leukocytosis

130

A line drawn or visualized on the surface of the skin to represent the approximate location of some deeper-lying structure

Linear Guide

131

Postmortem, intravascular, red-blue discoloration resulting from hypostasis of blood can usually be cleared via arterial injection and drainage

Livor Mortis
Postmortem Lividity
Cadaveric Lividity

132

A single, noose-like suture, not pulled taut before knotting, which stands from the skin and which anchors restorative materials

Loop Stitch

133

The cavity or opening of a vein, artery, or intestine
The further away from the heart, the smaller this becomes

Lumen

134

A specific antibody acting destructively upon cells and tissues

Lysin

135

Organelle that exists within a cell, but separate from the cell; contains hydrolytic enzymes that break down proteins and certain carbohydrates

Lysosome

136

In its broadest sense, refers to the moistening, and softening, of any tissue decomposing in a liquid medium

Maceration

137

An insect larva; especially flies

Maggot

138

An influential person in medical embalming who was the first to note capillary circulation and was later known as the father of microscopic anatomy, father of histology

Marcello Malpighi

139

The horseshoe shaped bone forming the inferior jaw

Mandible

140

A paired bone with several processes that form the skeletal base of most of the superior face, roof of the mouth, sides of the nasal cavity, and floor of the orbit

Maxilla

141

Toward the midline

Medial

142

An official elected or appointed to investigate suspicious or unnatural death

Medical Examiner

143

That amount of radioactive material in which 37 million disintegrate each second

Millicurie

144

Chemicals added to the embalming solution to deal with varying demands predicated upon the embalming fluid to be used, type of embalming, the environment, and the embalming fluid to be used

Modifying Agents

145

Space between the roof of the mouth and the flood of the cranial cavity

Nasal Cavity

146

Antemortem, physiological death of the cells of the body followed by their replacement

Necrobiosis

147

A postmortem examination of the organs and tissues of a body to determine cause of death or pathological condition

Autopsy
Necropsy

148

Pathological death of a tissue still a part of the living organism

Necrosis

149

A mechanical device used to impel specially designed metal pins into bone

Needle Injector

150

The mouth and the vestibule, or the opening to the throat

Oral Cavity

151

The passage of solvent from a solution of lesser to one of greater solute concentration when the two solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane

Osmosis
Hindered Diffusion

152

Method by which solutes and/or solvents cross through a membrane with no energy provided by the cells of the membrane

Passive Transport System

153

To force a fluid through and organ or tissue, especially by way of the blood vessels; injection during vascular embalming

Perfusion

154

The maximum legal limits established by OSHA for regulated substances
Based on employee exposure that are time-weighted over an eight hour work shift
When these are exceeded, employers must take proper steps to reduce employee exposure
For formaldehyde, this is .75 ppm

Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)

155

Antemortem, pinpoint, extravascular blood discoloration visible as purplish hemorrhages of the skin

Petechia

156

An antiseptic/disinfectant employed to dry moist tissues and to bleach

Phenol
Carbolic Acid

157

Condition in which interstitial spaces contain such excessive amounts of fluid that the skin remains depressed after palpation

Pitting Edema

158

Extravascular color change that occurs when heme, released by hemolysis of red blood cells, seeps through the vessels walls and into the body tissues aka laking

Postmortem Stain

159

The action of a force against an opposing force

Pressure

160

That pressure which is indicated by the injector gauge needle when the arterial tube is open and the arterial solution is flowing into the body

Actual Pressure

161

The pressure exerted by the blood on the vessel walls measured in millimeters of mercury

Blood Pressure

162

The difference between potential and actual pressure

Differential Pressure

163

The amount of pressure produced by an injection device to overcome initial resistance within or on the vascular system

Injection Pressure

164

Pressure developed as the flow of embalming solution is established and the elastic arterial walls expand and then contract, resulting in filling of the capillary beds and development of pressure filtration

Intravascular Pressure

165

The pressure indicated by the injector gauge needle when the injector motor is running an the arterial tubing is clamped off

Potential Pressure

166

Positive intravascular pressure causing passage of embalming solution through the capillary causing passage of embalming fluid from an intravascular to a wall to diffuse with the interstitial fluids

Pressure Filtration

167

Organic compound found in plants and animals; can be broken down into amino acids

Protein

168

A suture made around the circumference of a circular opening or puncture to close it or to hold the margins in position

Purse String Suture

169

Supplemental fluid, used with the regular arterial solution, whose purpose is to retain body moisture and retard decomposition

Restorative Fluid aka Humectant

170

Method of injection wherein both common carotid arteries are raised

Restricted Cervical Injection

171

Inner lining of the eye that receives the images formed by the lens and transmits those images to the brain through the optic nerve

Retina

172

An influential person in medical embalming who is known as the Father of Embalming

Frederick Ruysch

173

Process of soap formation; as related to decomposition, the conversion of fatty tissues of the body into a soapy waxy substance called adipocere or grave wax

Saponification

174

Pathologic state, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the blood or other tissues

Sepsis

175

Condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in blood

Septicemia

176

Legal limits established by OSHA to which worker can be exposed continuously for a short period of time without damage or injury
Exposures at this should not be for more than 15 minutes and not repeated more than 4 times per work day

Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)

177

Drug-induced edema wherein the excess fluid is located within the cell. Upon palpation, there is no noticeable depression

Solid Edema

178

The substance that is dissolved in a solution

Solute

179

Liquid containing dissolved substance

Solution

180

A liquid holding another substance in solution

Solvent

181

Death of the organism as a whole

Somatic Death

182

Distension of the tissues beneath the skin by gas or air; an antemortem condition brought about by a surgical procedure or trauma

Subcutaneous Emphysema

183

Fluid injected for purposes other than preservation and disinfection

Supplemental Fluid

184

Chemical that reduces the molecular cohesion of a liquid so it can flow through smaller apertures

Surfactant

185

Postmortem accumulation of gas in tissues or cavities brought about by an anaerobic gas forming bacillus

Tissue Gas

186

An evaluation of exposures that are time weighted over an established period
Allows the exposure levels to be averaged generally over an eight hour time period

Time-Weighted Average

187

Father of bacteriology
He made his own microscopes which were superior to any of that time
Gave the first complete account of the red blood cell
Demonstrated the capillary connections between arteries and veins
Father of Microbiology

Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek

188

Controls that reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the manner in which a task is performed
Prohibiting recapping of needles

Work Practice Controls

189

A method of sewing an incision along the edges without entering the opening whereby the suture becomes invisible and the line of suture becomes depressed, which lends it ease of concealment by waxing

Worm Suture
Inversion
Draw Stitch