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Flashcards in Child Development - Sex & Gender Deck (41)
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1
Q

What is the definition of sex?

A

Sex is a person’s biological status

Whether they are male or female

2
Q

What is the definition of gender?

A

Gender is an individual’s learned and cultural status

Whether they are masculine or feminine

3
Q

What is the Mullerian system?

A

In the first 6-8 weeks of development, all foetuses have the same undeveloped sex organs

4
Q

How is sex determined?

A

Whether someone has XX or XY chromosomes

The presence or absence of the SRY gene determines whether the foetus will develop to be male or female

5
Q

What is the role of the SRY gene?

A

It codes for the protein TDF

testis determining factor

6
Q

What is the role of TDF?

A

It influences the development of the gonads so they become testes

The testes produce testosterone

7
Q

What is the role of testosterone?

A

Testosterone triggers the development of external male organs

8
Q

What happens in the absence of testosterone?

A

The Mullerian system develops into female sex organs

9
Q

What are the 3 stages that lead to the development of gender identity?

A
  1. prenatal hormones
  2. development of male or female genitalia
  3. parents assign as male or female and raise the child accordingly
10
Q

How are hormones involved in gender identity?

A

The same prenatal hormones that affect genitalia and the organisation of the brain are involved in gender identity

11
Q

How do sex hormones differ in males and females?

A

The same sex hormones exist in males and females

They differ in quantity and the effects that they have on the body

12
Q

What are the main sex hormones?

A

testosterone, oestrogen and oxytocin

13
Q

What does a biological approach to gender suggest?

A

There is no difference between sex and gender

Biological sex creates gendered behaviour

14
Q

What happens during puberty?

A

Hypothalamus releases a hormone which affects the anterior pituitary gland

This causes gonads to become more active

They control the development of SSCs

15
Q

What characteristics is testosterone associated with?

A

Aggressive behaviour, high sex drive and poor language development

16
Q

How does rearing influence gender identity?

A

A child develops their own gender identity by being told they are either male or female

17
Q

What are disorders of sexual development (DSDs)?

A

Physical biological conditions

18
Q

What is the most common DSD?

How many people does it affect?

A

1 in 2000 births involve atypical genitals

This makes the sex of the child unclear

19
Q

Around how many children have an abnormality in physical/biological sex?

A

1 in 100

This includes chromosomal and physical development differences

20
Q

When does a DSD occur?

A

When the reproductive or sexual anatomy is not standard for male or female

21
Q

Why may a DSD not be apparent at birth?

A

At puberty, sex hormones become active and the DSD may then be discovered

22
Q

How does parental behaviour influence gender identity?

A
  1. parents act as role models for their children
  2. child-parent interactions vary depending on the sex of the child
  3. gender-appropriate toys and activities are given to the child
23
Q

What is meant by parental expectation in gender identity?

A

Parents have expectations of what their children are likely to become when they get older depending on their biological sex

24
Q

What is meant by a ‘gender role’?

A

There are certain behaviours, attitudes and characteristics associated with gender roles

These become stereotypes

25
Q

What is the difference in gender role stereotypes for males and females?

A

The distance in gender role stereotypes is more narrow for males

There is more pressure on them as it is less acceptable for them to display feminine characteristics

26
Q

What does the social learning theory state?

A

Children are encouraged to do the appropriate sex-based activities

27
Q

How do parents have an influence in social learning theory?

A

Traditional roles are fed to children in traditional families

28
Q

How does the media have an influence in social learning theory?

A

it portrays traditional roles for males and females

e.g. females are placed in a traditional domestic role

29
Q

How do schools have an influence in social learning theory?

A

they transmit the information of gender role stereotypes to the children

30
Q

What process leads to male gender identity developing according to social learning theory?

A

Rewards for masculine behaviour and punishments for feminine behaviour

The child begins imitating males as these are role models

The male gender identity begins to develop

31
Q

What is the biggest influence on gender identity according to social learning theory?

A

Behaviour of the parents

The parents are in the roles that children will begin to imitate

32
Q

According to cognitive developmental theory, what are the 3 stages of gender identity development?

A
  1. gender identity
  2. gender stability
  3. gender constancy
33
Q

What happens during the gender identity stage?

What age does this occur?

A

The child recognises that they are male or female

They begin to notice other people’s gender as well

Occurs around 2 years of age

34
Q

What happens during the gender stability stage?

At what age does this occur?

A

The child understands that their gender is fixed and they will be male/female when they are older

Happens around 4 years of age

35
Q

What happens during the gender constancy phase?

At what age does this occur?

A

A child recognises that cosmetic changes will not alter sex

Occurs at 5-7 years of age

36
Q

How do peers influence gender identity?

At what age is this apparent?

A

Peers encourage separation between genders during play

Preference for same sex playmates and avoidance of playmates of the opposite sex

Apparent before age of 3

37
Q

What starts to develop around age 3-4 years?

A

Stereotypes

Boys tend to play sports in large groups and girls tend to play in smaller groups

38
Q

How does the media influence gender role?

A
  1. toys are stereotyped
  2. females are usually under-represented in children’s books
  3. men outnumber women in programmes and adverts
  4. men are paid more for doing the same job
39
Q

What are the similarities in gender and cognitive abilities?

A
  1. general intelligence
  2. learning and memory
  3. complex cognitive tasks
40
Q

What are the differences in gender and cognitive abilities?

A
  1. Women tend to have better verbal ability

2. men tend to have better spatial ability and maths ability

41
Q

Why do boys tend to be better at math than females?

A

Due to their school experiences

They do more maths at school and get more attention from male teachers