What is the role of Unicef in children’s human rights?
They show the minimum expectation of children’s rights
What are the UK laws on parental responsibility relating to the mother?
Mother has parental responsibility from birth
What are the UK laws on parental responsibility relating to the father?
The father only has parental responsibility if the parents are married at the time of birth
What are the 5 main parental responsibilities?
- providing a home for the child
- protecting and maintaining the child
- disciplining the child
- choosing and providing the child’s education and determining their religion
- agreeing to the child’s medical treatment
Who suggested the different styles of parenting?
What influences parenting?
The household that the child grows up in as well as the other agencies they interact with, such as school
What are the different styles of parenting?
How do authoritarian parents respond to their child?
They have very high expectations of their child
They provide very little in the way of feedback and nurturance
What are ideas about behaviour like in authoritarian parenting?
Strict ideas about discipline and behaviour that are not open to discussion
Parents do not explain to the child why the rules are applied
How are mistakes dealt with in authoritarian parenting?
Mistakes tend to be punished harshly
What is the similarity between authoritarian and authoritative parenting?
They share the same ideas about discipline that there are rules and consequences to bad behaviour
What are ideas about behaviour like in authoritative parenting?
Concrete ideas about discipline and behaviour but they are explained and discussed with the child
The child understands why the rules are applied
How do authoritative parents respond to their children?
They respond to their emotional needs whilst having high standards
How do authoritative parents support their child’s autonomy?
They set limits and are consistent in enforcing boundaries
But they allow the children to make choices when it comes to small decisions
What are the consequences for the child of having authoritative parents?
They tend to be more socially competent and show better academic achievement
How do permissive parents respond to their children?
They are very loving but have very few rules
Parents do not expect mature behaviour from their children and often appear as more of a ‘friend’
What are the ideas about behaviour in permissive parenting?
Ideas about discipline and behaviour are very relaxed
What is Maccoby & Martin’s theory?
There is demanding and undemanding parenting as well as responsive and unresponsive parenting
What is meant by demanding parenting?
There is a set of rules which help to control behaviour
What is meant by undemanding parenting?
There are no behavioural rules to follow
According to Maccoby and Martin, what are the 4 types of parenting?
What is meant by the responsiveness of parenting?
This is the psychological response to the child
It involves listening to them and understanding what they need/want
How does an uninvolved parent respond to their child?
There is a lack of responsiveness to the child’s needs
They make few or no demands of their children and are often indifferent or dismissive
What is chastisement?
The act of scolding or punishing someone
What does the English law state about chastisement?
Parents have the right to make choices about reasonable punishments
Anyone employed privately by the parent may smack a child with parental permission
Under what circumstances is a smack determined reasonable chastisement?
If it is open-handed
It is administered on a part of the body that will not cause harm
It is not severe enough to leave a mark
What are the 5 guidelines for parents?
- be united
- be clear
- be consistent
- be flexible
- be loving
What is meant by ‘being united’?
adults should agree and support each other’s decisions
What is meant by ‘being clear’?
rules and expectations should be agreed on in advance
What is meant by ‘being consistent’?
sticking to what has been agreed and knowing “no” means no
What is meant by ‘being flexible’?
as the child gets older, the rules may need to change
What is meant by ‘being loving’?
The child should know that rules are there because you love them and want what is best for them
How do most people learn to parent?
Through being parented themselves
They know what experiences they liked and didn’t like and what they don’t want to expose their children to
How many families are in the UK and how many have dependent children?
8 million have dependent children
Approximately how many dependent children are there per family?
How are dependent children defined?
- living at home with their parents
- financially dependent on parents
- of a certain age, but this varies between countries
How does education affect the number of dependent children?
Education makes children more dependent
They may be dependent up until 25 if they are in full-time education
How many households are there in the UK?
Approx how many people per household?
- 2 million
2. 4 people per household
At what age do attachments change in children?
Between 6 and 18 months
How do children under 2 respond to peers?
Early interest in peers
Between 12-18 months, they will touch their mum the most but will look at unfamiliar peers more than their mum
They tend not to interact with peers, but watch and look what they are doing
How do children aged 2 and over respond to peers?
2 year olds begin to elicit peer attention or imitate them
What type of play do 2-4 year olds tend to engage in?
if they do play in a group, the genders tend to be in proportion
What type of play do 5 - 6 year olds tend to engage in?
group play with larger groups
groups tend to be single sex
boys tend to play in larger groups and have a more mixed age range
How do children aged 12 and over tend to interact with peers?
They form cliques or groups which are mixed sex
What is sociometry?
The study of relationships within a group of people
What are the 4 categories of sociometric status?
popular, neglected, controversial and rejected
How is sociometric status amongst children determined?
direct observation - watching the time spent interacting in a group of preschool children
Asking the children who are their 3 most liked and least liked peers
How do popular children tend to behave?
(lots of most liked, not many least liked)
tend to be socially competent
How do controversial children tend to behave?
(lots of most liked and least liked)
tend to be dominant characters who are sociable and aggressive
How do neglected children tend to behave?
(not many most liked or least liked)
tend to be well-adjusted and shy and have one best friend
How do rejected children tend to behave?
(lots of least liked and not many most liked)
often have poor health outcomes, they are withdrawn and have high aggression
What is adolescence?
A period of storm, strife and chaos
It is a statement of autonomy as the child decides to be their own person and rejects parenting