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What is the definition of a group?

A collection of people with a shared feature or attribute


What is an experienced group?

This gives a sense of belongingness

It may be ethnicity, occupation or a team


What are in-groups?


This emphasises individuality within a group

It is the characteristics of the group which you want to distinguish your group by


What are out-groups?


Groups which you pick negative characteristics about, and assume everyone in that group has those core traits


Why do in-groups and out-groups exist?

There is a desire to distinguish your group from other groups


What are the positives of group work and the presence of others?

1. increases productivity

2. changes the type of decision made

3. changes attitudes and behaviour


What tends to make people more productive when working in a group?

Social facilitation

The idea that performance is better in competition

And performance improves by merely being observed


When does social facilitation switch to social inhibition?

People perform straight-forward tasks better when being observed

If the complexity of the task is increased, being part of a group starts to compromise performance


What is social inhibition?

Tasks are performed with more errors and a poorer overall performance as they become more complex


Why does social facilitation only apply to straight-forward tasks?

Having someone present leads to an increased performance time

Being evaluated leads to performance time increasing even further


Why does social inhibition apply to complex tasks?

The task takes longer if you are being observed

People become anxious about being evaluated and it is distracting having someone present when you are trying to concentrate on a complex task


What is social loafing?

The idea that people are prone to exert less effort on a task if they are working in a group, than if they were working alone


Why would a group of 6 people pulling a rope exert less force than the summed pull of 6 people pulling individually?

Due to social loafing

There is a decrease in effort by 10% as soon as the second person is added


What is the average loss of productivity in a group due to social loafing?

There is a plateau at a 23% loss in productivity when more people are added to a group


What are pseudo-groups and their influence on group productivity?

They are "actors" who are not actually performing the task

They account for coordination loss


How else does social-loafing affect group productivity?

It leads to a loss of motivation


What are the 3 reasons why social loafing occurs?

1. there are unclear/different standards

2. output equity

3. evaluation apprehension


Why would shared standards help to reduce social loafing?

Sometimes the standards expected from the group are unclear - this would help to clarify


What is meant by output equity?

We expect other people to socially loaf as well, so no one wants to be putting the most effort in to the task


What is meant by evaluation apprehension?

People tend to claim and "hide" in the more non-engaging tasks


What 3 factors can be used to reduce social loafing?

1. make individual contributions identifiable

2. emphasise valuable individual contributions

3. keep group size at an appropriate level


How does group brainstorming compare with individual brainstorming?

Group brainstorming is far less productive than individual brainstorming


Do groups tend to make more conservative (cautious) decisions?

Groups tend to come up with more cautious recommendations than individuals alone

This is why groups of individuals are elected


What is meant by the "Risky Shift"?

A group consensus is almost always riskier than the average decision made by individuals prior to group discussion


What is meant by "Group Polarisation"?

Group discussion strengthens the average inclination of group members


How does group polarisation affect how cautious or risky a decision is?

People's original leanings become more cautious/risky depending on the scenario when put into a group


How does a discussion with like-minded people with the same beliefs affect an individual's beliefs?

Discussion with like-minded people makes individuals strengthen their beliefs even further


In what 3 ways does group polarisation affect an individual?

1. they come up with more persuasive arguments

2. social comparison and social desirability

3. discussion produces a commitment


What is meant by social desirability in group polarisation?

People want to have the most positive or extreme view out of a group of people with shared views


What is meant by a commitment being produced through group polarisation?

Discussing an idea helps to strengthen your view as it moves from an attitude to a commitment