What is the definition of a group?
A collection of people with a shared feature or attribute
What is an experienced group?
This gives a sense of belongingness
It may be ethnicity, occupation or a team
What are in-groups?
This emphasises individuality within a group
It is the characteristics of the group which you want to distinguish your group by
What are out-groups?
Groups which you pick negative characteristics about, and assume everyone in that group has those core traits
Why do in-groups and out-groups exist?
There is a desire to distinguish your group from other groups
What are the positives of group work and the presence of others?
- increases productivity
- changes the type of decision made
- changes attitudes and behaviour
What tends to make people more productive when working in a group?
The idea that performance is better in competition
And performance improves by merely being observed
When does social facilitation switch to social inhibition?
People perform straight-forward tasks better when being observed
If the complexity of the task is increased, being part of a group starts to compromise performance
What is social inhibition?
Tasks are performed with more errors and a poorer overall performance as they become more complex
Why does social facilitation only apply to straight-forward tasks?
Having someone present leads to an increased performance time
Being evaluated leads to performance time increasing even further
Why does social inhibition apply to complex tasks?
The task takes longer if you are being observed
People become anxious about being evaluated and it is distracting having someone present when you are trying to concentrate on a complex task
What is social loafing?
The idea that people are prone to exert less effort on a task if they are working in a group, than if they were working alone
Why would a group of 6 people pulling a rope exert less force than the summed pull of 6 people pulling individually?
Due to social loafing
There is a decrease in effort by 10% as soon as the second person is added
What is the average loss of productivity in a group due to social loafing?
There is a plateau at a 23% loss in productivity when more people are added to a group
What are pseudo-groups and their influence on group productivity?
They are “actors” who are not actually performing the task
They account for coordination loss
How else does social-loafing affect group productivity?
It leads to a loss of motivation
What are the 3 reasons why social loafing occurs?
- there are unclear/different standards
- output equity
- evaluation apprehension
Why would shared standards help to reduce social loafing?
Sometimes the standards expected from the group are unclear - this would help to clarify
What is meant by output equity?
We expect other people to socially loaf as well, so no one wants to be putting the most effort in to the task
What is meant by evaluation apprehension?
People tend to claim and “hide” in the more non-engaging tasks
What 3 factors can be used to reduce social loafing?
- make individual contributions identifiable
- emphasise valuable individual contributions
- keep group size at an appropriate level
How does group brainstorming compare with individual brainstorming?
Group brainstorming is far less productive than individual brainstorming
Do groups tend to make more conservative (cautious) decisions?
Groups tend to come up with more cautious recommendations than individuals alone
This is why groups of individuals are elected
What is meant by the “Risky Shift”?
A group consensus is almost always riskier than the average decision made by individuals prior to group discussion
What is meant by “Group Polarisation”?
Group discussion strengthens the average inclination of group members
How does group polarisation affect how cautious or risky a decision is?
People’s original leanings become more cautious/risky depending on the scenario when put into a group
How does a discussion with like-minded people with the same beliefs affect an individual’s beliefs?
Discussion with like-minded people makes individuals strengthen their beliefs even further
In what 3 ways does group polarisation affect an individual?
- they come up with more persuasive arguments
- social comparison and social desirability
- discussion produces a commitment
What is meant by social desirability in group polarisation?
People want to have the most positive or extreme view out of a group of people with shared views
What is meant by a commitment being produced through group polarisation?
Discussing an idea helps to strengthen your view as it moves from an attitude to a commitment
What are the non-social factors that influence response in an emergency?
- ambiguity of the situation
- personal threat/cost of intervention
What are the social factors that influence response in an emergency?
The presence of others
e.g. bystander apathy
How does the presence of others affect rejection of authority?
Presence of others appears to facilitate disobedience or rejection of authority
Numbers enable rebellion but inhibit responding in crisis situations
What is meant by cultural norms as an example of pro-social behaviour?
There is a social responsibility norm to give freely to help those in need
There is a reciprocity norm as helping people means they are more likely to help us back
What types of people tend to be more helpful?
- people in a good mood
- men (when helping women)
- those who feel competent
What are norms?
They are shared beliefs about appropriate conduct
Or behaviours that characterise groups
What are examples of norms that reflect shared beliefs about appropriate conduct?
These are explicit rules e.g. laws, religious codes, about what you should/shouldn’t do
Or they may be implicit, taken-for-granted habits, such as the responsibility to look after other humans
What are examples of norms that reflect behaviours that characterise groups?
Stereotypes within groups
These are the things that define a group
Why are norms inherently resistant to change?
It is difficult to change core norms as they are implicit
People do not think through their response in situations which challenge norms
What is conformity?
Constructing and adhering to norms and yielding to the majority
In Solomon Asch’s experiment, what results were seen?
As the number of confederates increases, the more people will agree with the majority view even if it is not what they instinctively believe
Why do people conform?
To avoid censure, ridicule and social disapproval
No one wants to be the “odd one out”
If people were allowed to write a judgement privately, how does this affect conformity?
Conformity drops massively when people do not have to share their judgement
What types of people conform?
All people conform, but whether or not they conform depends on the situation
There is little consistency
In which cultural groups is conformity higher?
In collectivist cultures (parts of Africa, Asia and South America)
What types of group size tend to show conformity?
It levels off at a majority of 3 or 4
One ‘deviant’ ruins the effect - only one person needs to disagree for others to conform to their behaviour
How can conformity affect social norms and health perception in the misperception of peer behaviour?
- overestimate peer risk behaviour
- underestimate protective behaviour
- focus on extremes
- media complicit leads to scare stories
What is meant by deindividuation as a group influence?
People’s loss of self-awareness and restraint in groups
e.g. anonymity within a crowd, by mask or uniform
What is meant by dehumanisation as a group influence?
Victims are made anonymous
e.g. in the war
What is meant by disinhibition as a group influence?
a lack of restraint manifested in disregard of social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment