Child Development - Language Flashcards Preview

I & P Year 1 > Child Development - Language > Flashcards

Flashcards in Child Development - Language Deck (78)
Loading flashcards...
1

What 4 things does a proficient user of language have a knowledge of?

1. phonology
2. semantics
3. syntax
4. pragmatics

2

What is phonology?

System of contrastive relationships among the speech sounds that constitute the fundamental components of a language

3

What are phonemes?

Any of the distinct units of sound in a language that distinguish one word from another

e.g. p, b, t and d in the words pad, pat, bat and bad

4

At what age do children recognise phonemes?

around the age of 4 or 5

5

How does phonology differ between languages?

Each language has its own phonetic structure and its own phonemes

6

What are combination rules?

Combination rules allow for meaningful speech

e.g. st and sk can go together but sb and sg cannot

7

How do children begin to learn about phonology?

They learn to distinguish different sounds

They segment the speech stream they are exposed to into units, which eventually become meaningful units

8

What is semantics?

The branch of linguistics and logic concerned with meaning

9

What is lexical semantics?

The analysis of word meanings and relations between them

10

What are morphemes?

The smallest linguistic units that carry meaning

11

What are examples of morphemes?

prefix/suffixes and small words

e.g. un and ex

12

What is syntax?

The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language

13

What is involved in understanding syntax?

Selection of a word, the tense of the word, the arrangement of words and the selection of punctuation

14

How does syntax differ between languages?

Each language has its own syntax - a set of rules

e.g. John hit Jim has a different meaning to Jim hit John

John Jim hit doesn't make sense

15

What is pragmatics?

This involves the rules about language in social contexts

16

What are examples of using pragmatics?

1. being polite and saying 'please' and 'thank you'

2. taking turns in conversation

17

What does pragmatics describe?

What you should say and how you should say it

Language is used differently depending on who you are talking to and what you are saying

18

At what age is the pre-linguistic period?

0 - 12 months

19

What is the pre-linguistic period?

The time period before children begin to say their first meaningful words

20

How do children bring attention to objects during the pre-linguistic period?

They bring attention to objects non-verbally through pointing and touching

21

What are the 4 forms of communication during the pre-linguistic period?

1. vegetative sounds
2. cooing and laughter
3. vocal play
4. babbling

22

What are vegetative sounds and at what age do these occur?

The natural sounds that babies make, such as crying

Occurs during 0 - 2 months

23

What is cooing and laughter?

At what age is this observed?

Vocalisations the baby makes when they are happy or content

Made up of vowel or consonant sounds

Occurs at 2 - 5 months of age

24

What is vocal play?

At what age does this occur?

The baby begins to string together longer vowel or consonant sounds

Occurs at 4 - 8 months

25

What is babbling?

At what age does this occur?

Child begins to produce a series of consonant-vowel syllables

They may develop utterances (ma-ma and da-da)

Occurs around 6 - 13 months

26

What is echolalia?

Repetition of speech by a child learning to talk

Babbling can involve echolalia

27

How do parents interact with their child during the pre-linguistic period?

They tend to repeat sounds back to the child

This acts to encourage them to continue making sounds

28

How does intonation teach children a feature about conversation?

They learn about taking turns in speaking and knowing when it is their turn to answer

Intonation denotes that a question is being asked

29

What is intonation?

The rise and fall of the voice in speaking

Involves the rhythm of speech and how language is not monotone

30

What do children learn about words during the pre-linguistic period?

Children learn that words have meaning