Flashcards in Child Development - Language Deck (78)
What 4 things does a proficient user of language have a knowledge of?
What is phonology?
System of contrastive relationships among the speech sounds that constitute the fundamental components of a language
What are phonemes?
Any of the distinct units of sound in a language that distinguish one word from another
e.g. p, b, t and d in the words pad, pat, bat and bad
At what age do children recognise phonemes?
around the age of 4 or 5
How does phonology differ between languages?
Each language has its own phonetic structure and its own phonemes
What are combination rules?
Combination rules allow for meaningful speech
e.g. st and sk can go together but sb and sg cannot
How do children begin to learn about phonology?
They learn to distinguish different sounds
They segment the speech stream they are exposed to into units, which eventually become meaningful units
What is semantics?
The branch of linguistics and logic concerned with meaning
What is lexical semantics?
The analysis of word meanings and relations between them
What are morphemes?
The smallest linguistic units that carry meaning
What are examples of morphemes?
prefix/suffixes and small words
e.g. un and ex
What is syntax?
The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language
What is involved in understanding syntax?
Selection of a word, the tense of the word, the arrangement of words and the selection of punctuation
How does syntax differ between languages?
Each language has its own syntax - a set of rules
e.g. John hit Jim has a different meaning to Jim hit John
John Jim hit doesn't make sense
What is pragmatics?
This involves the rules about language in social contexts
What are examples of using pragmatics?
1. being polite and saying 'please' and 'thank you'
2. taking turns in conversation
What does pragmatics describe?
What you should say and how you should say it
Language is used differently depending on who you are talking to and what you are saying
At what age is the pre-linguistic period?
0 - 12 months
What is the pre-linguistic period?
The time period before children begin to say their first meaningful words
How do children bring attention to objects during the pre-linguistic period?
They bring attention to objects non-verbally through pointing and touching
What are the 4 forms of communication during the pre-linguistic period?
1. vegetative sounds
2. cooing and laughter
3. vocal play
What are vegetative sounds and at what age do these occur?
The natural sounds that babies make, such as crying
Occurs during 0 - 2 months
What is cooing and laughter?
At what age is this observed?
Vocalisations the baby makes when they are happy or content
Made up of vowel or consonant sounds
Occurs at 2 - 5 months of age
What is vocal play?
At what age does this occur?
The baby begins to string together longer vowel or consonant sounds
Occurs at 4 - 8 months
What is babbling?
At what age does this occur?
Child begins to produce a series of consonant-vowel syllables
They may develop utterances (ma-ma and da-da)
Occurs around 6 - 13 months
What is echolalia?
Repetition of speech by a child learning to talk
Babbling can involve echolalia
How do parents interact with their child during the pre-linguistic period?
They tend to repeat sounds back to the child
This acts to encourage them to continue making sounds
How does intonation teach children a feature about conversation?
They learn about taking turns in speaking and knowing when it is their turn to answer
Intonation denotes that a question is being asked
What is intonation?
The rise and fall of the voice in speaking
Involves the rhythm of speech and how language is not monotone