Depression, Self-Harm & Suicide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Depression, Self-Harm & Suicide Deck (36)
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What are the 3 types of depression?

1. bipolar (manic) depression

2. unipolar depression

3. dysthymia


What is bipolar depression?

What characterises it?

1. Excessive elation, irritability, talkativeness

2. inflated self-esteem

This is followed by a period of depression


What characterises unipolar depression?

There is no mania


What is dysthymia?

A persistent low grade mood


What is the difference between depression and not being happy?

Everyone goes through periods of not being happy - a reason can usually be identified

Depression is an illness and the sufferer has relatively little control over it


What are the 5 questions that should be used in diagnosing depression?

Is the depression:

1. an illness or normal unhappiness?

2. secondary to a physical illness or alcohol/drugs?

3. presenting with physical symptoms?

4. co-occurring with anxiety?

5. placing person at risk of suicide?


What are the 3 cores features of depression?

1. pervasive low mood

2. anhedonia (loss of interest and enjoyment)

3. reduced energy and diminished activity


What is meant by a pervasive low mood?

A constant low mood that does not recede


What are examples of anhedonia?

People losing interest in things that they used to enjoy

Examples of behaviours include people stopping going out and engaging in social activities


What are the 2 main questions that can diagnose 85-90% of people with depression?

1. Have you been low in spirits?

2. Have you been able to enjoy the things you usually enjoy? (anhedonia)


What is important to consider when asking screening questions for depression?

Context and history

Someone may answer yes to both questions, but may have had a recent bereavement in the family


What is meant by the biological basis for depression?

Depression is associated with natural biological change

e.g. childbirth, menstrual cycle


What are drug therapies used for depression?

1. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

2. Tricyclic antidepressants

3. SSRIs


What are the 3 physical treatments for depression?

1. drug therapy

2. physical activity/exercise

3. electro-convulsive therapy (ECT)


When is physical activity/exercise used as treatment for depression and why?

Mild depression

It is as effective as antidepressants or CBT


When is electro-convulsive therapy used as a treatment for depression?

it is only used in intractable or psychotic depression

ECT acts as an end-point treatment for patients who have failed to respond to other treatments


What theory is the basis for Cognitive Behavioural Therapy?

Beck's cognitive theory of depression


How do physical and psychological treatments for depression interact?

they work alongside each other

Drugs tend to relieve some of the more severe side effects, allowing people to engage in psychological treatment


What is meant by the cognitive triad in Beck's cognitive theory of depression?

1. negative view of self

2. negative view of experience

3. negative view of future

These 3 components together produce depression


What are the errors in logic suggested by Beck's cognitive theory of depression?

1. overgeneralisation

failing in one thing means you are useless at everything

2. magnification and minimisation

this is making disasters and failure to take praise

3. personalisation

this is taking all the blame


What is involved in cognitive therapy?

It is a talking therapy that involves 6 - 20 sessions

It is as good as antidepressants in mild to moderate depression


What are the 2 main cognitive therapy techniques?

1. reality testing automatic thoughts

(setting up situations in which people can re-learn what they predict of the future)

2. changing depressogenic assumptions


What is an example of a depressogenic assumption?

In order to be happy, I have to be successful in everything I do


What are the 4 terms that are used to refer to the same collection of self-harm behaviours?

1. deliberate self-harm

2. self-harm

3. parasuicide

4. attempted suicide


What are the two main types of self-harm?

1. self-poisoning

2. self-injury


What is the definition of self-harm?

Intentional self-poisoning or self-injury, irrespective of motivation


What is involved in self-poisoning?

The use of:

1. prescribed or over-the-counter drugs

2. recreational drugs

3. non-ingestible substances


What are examples of self-injury?

1. self-cutting

2. jumping from a height

3. attempted hanging

4. swallowing foreign bodies

5. self-burning


What are the gender differences in self-harm?

It is slightly more common in women up to the age of 20

After this age, it is no more common in women than in men


What are the 8 motivations for self-harm?

1. relief from state of mind

2. escape from impossible situation

3. show how much you love someone

4. show somebody how you feel

5. find out if someone loves you

6. seek help

7. frighten someone/make them sorry

8. influence someone