Flashcards in Child Development - Cognition & Intelligence Deck (67)
What did Jean Piaget believe about cognitive development?
Intelligence is NOT a fixed trait
Cognitive development is a process which occurs due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment
How did Jean Piaget characterise age?
Age is characterised by the type of thinking that the children can engage in
It focuses on how they think, not what they know
What did Piaget say about genetic inheritance and intelligence?
Children are born with a inherited basic mental structure on which all subsequent learning and knowledge is based
What does Piaget's theory state about stages of development?
There are discrete stages of development marked by qualitative differences
rather than a gradual increase in number and complexity of behaviours
What are the 3 underlying basic concepts of cognitive development?
2. adaptation processes that enable transition from one stage to another
3. Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development
What is a schema?
It is a building block of knowledge that allows formation of a mental representation of the world
What do schemas relate to?
Each schema relates to one aspect of the world
It may be an object, action or abstract concept
How do we use schemas?
they are used to understand and respond to situations
we store mental representations and apply them when needed
How would a schema for buying food in a restaurant work?
the schema is a stored form of the pattern of behaviour which includes looking at a menu, ordering, paying, etc.
This type of schema is a script
What happens to schemas as a child gets older?
The schemas become more numerous and more elaborate
Are new-born babies born with any schemas?
Neonatal schemas underly innate reflexes
What are the 3 adaptation processes involved in intellectual growth?
What is assimilation?
Using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation
What is accommodation?
When an existing schema does not work, it is changed to deal with a new object/situation
What is equilibration?
The force which moves development along
cognitive development progresses in leaps and bounds rather than a steady rate
What is the process that occurs when encountering a new situation?
3. new situation
When does equilibrium occur?
When a child's schemas can deal with most information through assimilation
When does disequilibrium occur?
When new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas
What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development and at what age do they occur?
sensorimotor stage - birth - 2 years
pre-operational stage - 2 -7 years
concrete operational stage - 7 - 11 years
formal operational stage - 11 years onwards
How are children under 7 distinguished from those who are older?
Children over the age of 7 can engage in operational thinking
What is the main achievement during the sensorimotor stage?
What does it require?
It requires the ability to form a schema of the object
It is knowing the object still exists even if it is hidden
What age is object permanence achieved?
around 8 months
can arise as early as 4 months
How do children in the sensorimotor stage "think"?
They think only by doing
They get to know the physical environment through seeing and touching
What is the main achievement during the pre-operational stage?
Children begin to think about things symbolically
This is the ability to make one thing stand for something other than itself
What is thinking like during the pre-operational stage?
The child has a very self-centred view of the world and has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others
How do children focus on a particular situation during the pre-operational stage?
What is this called?
They tend to focus on only one aspect of the situation and neglect other aspects which may be relevant
Visual appearance of the situation is the primary factor
What is the 3 mountain problem?
A child is asked to describe what a doll would be able to see from the other side of the mountain
What is the 3 mountain problem used to assess?
Whether a child is able to take other people's perspectives and whether they have developed theory of mind
What is theory of mind?
The capacity for children to understand that other individuals have different perspectives