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Flashcards in Child Development - Cognition & Intelligence Deck (67)
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1
Q

What did Jean Piaget believe about cognitive development?

A

Intelligence is NOT a fixed trait

Cognitive development is a process which occurs due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment

2
Q

How did Jean Piaget characterise age?

A

Age is characterised by the type of thinking that the children can engage in

It focuses on how they think, not what they know

3
Q

What did Piaget say about genetic inheritance and intelligence?

A

Children are born with a inherited basic mental structure on which all subsequent learning and knowledge is based

4
Q

What does Piaget’s theory state about stages of development?

A

There are discrete stages of development marked by qualitative differences

rather than a gradual increase in number and complexity of behaviours

5
Q

What are the 3 underlying basic concepts of cognitive development?

A
  1. schemas
  2. adaptation processes that enable transition from one stage to another
  3. Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development
6
Q

What is a schema?

A

It is a building block of knowledge that allows formation of a mental representation of the world

7
Q

What do schemas relate to?

A

Each schema relates to one aspect of the world

It may be an object, action or abstract concept

8
Q

How do we use schemas?

A

they are used to understand and respond to situations

we store mental representations and apply them when needed

9
Q

How would a schema for buying food in a restaurant work?

A

the schema is a stored form of the pattern of behaviour which includes looking at a menu, ordering, paying, etc.

This type of schema is a script

10
Q

What happens to schemas as a child gets older?

A

The schemas become more numerous and more elaborate

11
Q

Are new-born babies born with any schemas?

A

Neonatal schemas underly innate reflexes

12
Q

What are the 3 adaptation processes involved in intellectual growth?

A
  1. assimilation
  2. accommodation
  3. equilibration
13
Q

What is assimilation?

A

Using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation

14
Q

What is accommodation?

A

When an existing schema does not work, it is changed to deal with a new object/situation

15
Q

What is equilibration?

A

The force which moves development along

cognitive development progresses in leaps and bounds rather than a steady rate

16
Q

What is the process that occurs when encountering a new situation?

A
  1. assimilation
  2. equilibration
  3. new situation
  4. disequilibrium
  5. accommodation
17
Q

When does equilibrium occur?

A

When a child’s schemas can deal with most information through assimilation

18
Q

When does disequilibrium occur?

A

When new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas

19
Q

What are Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development and at what age do they occur?

A

sensorimotor stage - birth - 2 years

pre-operational stage - 2 -7 years

concrete operational stage - 7 - 11 years

formal operational stage - 11 years onwards

20
Q

How are children under 7 distinguished from those who are older?

A

Children over the age of 7 can engage in operational thinking

21
Q

What is the main achievement during the sensorimotor stage?

What does it require?

A

Object permanence

It requires the ability to form a schema of the object

It is knowing the object still exists even if it is hidden

22
Q

What age is object permanence achieved?

A

around 8 months

can arise as early as 4 months

23
Q

How do children in the sensorimotor stage “think”?

A

They think only by doing

They get to know the physical environment through seeing and touching

24
Q

What is the main achievement during the pre-operational stage?

A

Children begin to think about things symbolically

This is the ability to make one thing stand for something other than itself

25
Q

What is thinking like during the pre-operational stage?

A

Egocentric

The child has a very self-centred view of the world and has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others

26
Q

How do children focus on a particular situation during the pre-operational stage?

What is this called?

A

They tend to focus on only one aspect of the situation and neglect other aspects which may be relevant

Visual appearance of the situation is the primary factor

Centration

27
Q

What is the 3 mountain problem?

A

A child is asked to describe what a doll would be able to see from the other side of the mountain

28
Q

What is the 3 mountain problem used to assess?

A

Whether a child is able to take other people’s perspectives and whether they have developed theory of mind

29
Q

What is theory of mind?

A

The capacity for children to understand that other individuals have different perspectives

30
Q

At what age does theory of mind develop?

A

Around age 4 onwards

31
Q

What begins to develop during the concrete operational stage?

A

Logical or operational thought

The child can work things out in their head rather than physically trying things out

32
Q

What is ‘operation’?

A

The mental consideration of information in a logical manner

33
Q

What is the main achievement during the concrete operational stage?

A

Conservation -

Children can conserve number, mass and weight

34
Q

What is conservation?

A

The understanding that something stays the same in quantity, even if its appearance changes

35
Q

How is conservation of mass tested?

A

Taking 2 equal-sized clay balls and rolling one into a long thin structure

A child under 7 will think the long clay structure contains more clay

36
Q

How is conservation of volume tested?

A

Pouring water from a long, tall glass into a short, wide one

37
Q

What is the main achievement during the formal operational stage?

A

Children can think about abstract concepts and logically test hypotheses

38
Q

How is thinking different in the formal operational stage?

A

Children can consider alternatives in a situation and plan ahead

39
Q

How is memory assessed in a baby?

A
  1. placed under a mobile and the number of leg kicks in 2 mins is measured
  2. string attaches baby to mobile
  3. baby kicks more often as they learn that this will change the movement of the mobile
  4. number of leg kicks is counted again
  5. string removed in later memory test to see if they recall that kicks are related to mobile movement
40
Q

What are the results of the baby memory test in children of different ages?

A

2 months - remember for 1 day

3 months - remember for 1 week

6 months - remember for 2 weeks +

41
Q

At 8 months, what abilities does a child have?

A
  1. they can obey simple requests
  2. point to objects and can follow pointing gesture of adult
  3. shake head or say “no” in refusal
  4. develop self-recognition
42
Q

What abilities does a child have at 8 months that have been observationally learnt?

A
  1. hold a cup to a doll’s mouth to mimic feeding

2. demonstrate affection by hugging and kissing

43
Q

Why does an 8 month old child show toes when these are named by the mother?

A

They recognise that a particular verbal sequence corresponds to a particular action even if they don’t know the word

They know they will receive positive feedback

44
Q

What is self-recognition?

A

The child recognises that they have an identity which is different to everyone else

45
Q

How is self-recognition assessed?

A

rouge test (mirror self-recognition test)

46
Q

What happens in the rouge test?

A

child is placed in front of a mirror with a blob of paint on their face

if they touch the mark, they have self-identity as they can recognise that they look different

47
Q

What is IQ and what is it a measurement of?

A

Intelligence Quotient

a measure of how a child’s mental age corresponds with their chronological age

48
Q

What is IQ used for in children?

A
  1. To help assess their educational needs
  2. predicting school performance
  3. assessment following neurological trauma, learning disability or cognitive impairment
49
Q

Why is IQ not used after the age of 16?

A

You cannot distinguish a mental age for adults

It is only used for measuring a child’s development

50
Q

What type of distribution is shown by IQ scores?

A

normal distribution

51
Q

What is used to assess adult IQ?

A

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

52
Q

What are the drawbacks of IQ?

A
  1. does not measure job success
  2. it may not be a fixed quality and may fluctuate throughout life
  3. influenced by environment and culture
  4. doesn’t measure competence or general skills
  5. biased in favour of white, middle-class people
53
Q

What is the main factor that leads to deficient performance in IQ tests?

A

stereotype threats due to negative stereotypes about ethnicity, gender or age

54
Q

Who suggested measuring emotional intelligence rather than IQ?

A

Howard Gardner

55
Q

What does emotional intelligence involve?

A
  1. accurate perception and expression of emotions
  2. ability to access and generate emotions
  3. understanding emotions and emotional meanings of yourself and others
  4. good emotional regulation
56
Q

What is cerebral localisation?

A

the tendency for some neural functions or cognitive processes to be specialised to one side of the brain or the other

57
Q

What is the role of the medial longitudinal fissure?

A

separates the brain into 2 distinct cerebral hemispheres which are connected by the corpus callosum

58
Q

What was phrenology?

A

The study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities

59
Q

What is cerebral commissurotomy?

A

The “split-brain” procedure

60
Q

When is the split-brain procedure used?

A

to control seizures in epilepsy patients when they cannot be controlled with anticonvulsants alone

61
Q

What is involved in cerebral commissurotomy?

A

the corpus callosum is severed to alleviate the occurrence of seizures

62
Q

What happens after a cerebral commissurotomy?

A

the 2 hemispheres do not exchange information as efficiently as before

this leads to split-brain syndrome

63
Q

how is the manual/verbal response of a split-brain patient assessed?

A
  1. word “face” flashed to right field and patient asked what he saw
  2. the left hemisphere is dominant for verbal processing, he gives correct answer
  3. word flashed to left field
  4. right hemisphere cannot share information so he cannot say the word but can draw it
64
Q

Why is visual perception affected in split-brain patients?

A

left visual field goes to the right hemisphere and vice versa

follows contralateral rule

65
Q

How are chimeric faces used to measure processing of emotion?

A

Right hemisphere better at detecting emotional responses

anything in the left field of view dominates the decision as to what the emotion is

66
Q

What are the main functions of the left hemisphere?

A
  1. complex language functions
  2. complex logical activities
  3. mathematical computations
67
Q

What are the main functions of the right hemisphere?

A
  1. simple language functions
  2. spatial and pattern abilities
  3. emotional recognition