Flashcards in Memory Deck (70)
What is the definition of memory?
It is the faculty of the brain by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed
How does memory relate to future action?
It is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action
How many stages are involved in memory?
A three-stage process
What are the three stages of memory?
What is encoding?
The process by which we take in information from sensory input and transform it
What is the purpose of encoding?
Information needs to be changed into a form that can be stored
What are the 3 ways in which information can be encoded (stored)?
What is semantic processing?
This involves converting a sensory input into a meaning
How is a phone number remembered through acoustic coding?
This involves repeating the number to yourself
How is a phone number remembered through visual coding?
If you can remember the number through seeing it on a page
What is meant by storage?
The retention of information and the nature of the memory stores
What influences the nature of memory stores?
Where the information is stored
Duration - how long does the memory last for
Capacity - how much information can be stored at any time
How does storage affect retrieval of information?
The way in which information is stored affects the way it is retrieved
How does storage vary in STM and LTM?
It can only be stored briefly from 0 to 30 seconds in STM
It can be stored for a lifetime in LTM
What is involved in retrieval?
This involves getting information out of storage
If something cannot be remembered, it may be because it cannot be retrieved
How is information retrieved in STM?
It is retrieved and stored sequentially
e.g. remembering the 4th word of a list involves going through the list in order until the 4th word is reached
How is memory retrieved in LTM?
It is stored and retrieved by association
What helps to aid information retrieval?
e.g. alphabetically, in sequences or by time
What does the multi-store memory model describe?
The flow between 3 permanent storage systems of memory:
1. sensory register
What is the sensory register?
It is where information from the senses is stored
How long is information stored in the sensory register?
Around half a second and then it is forgotten
What is meant by the sensory register being 'modality-specific'?
Whichever sense is registered will match the way the information is held
What happens if sensory information is attended to?
It moves into short-term memory for temporary storage
It is encoded visually, acoustically or semantically
What is the capacity and duration of STM?
Capacity of 5 - 9 items
Duration of 30 seconds
How can the capacity of STM be increased?
What will help to retain information in the STM and consolidate it to LTM?
rehearsing information via the articulatory loop
How is information in LTM encoded?
What is the capacity and duration of LTM?
Information can be stored and retrieved for up to any duration
It has a seemingly unlimited capacity
When asked to remember a list of words, what information is generally recalled better?
Information at the beginning and the end of the list
Information in the middle is commonly forgotten