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Flashcards in Memory Deck (70)
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What is the definition of memory?

It is the faculty of the brain by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed


How does memory relate to future action?

It is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action


How many stages are involved in memory?

A three-stage process


What are the three stages of memory?

1. encoding

2. storage

3. retrieval


What is encoding?

The process by which we take in information from sensory input and transform it


What is the purpose of encoding?

Information needs to be changed into a form that can be stored


What are the 3 ways in which information can be encoded (stored)?

1. visual

2. acoustic

3. semantic


What is semantic processing?

This involves converting a sensory input into a meaning


How is a phone number remembered through acoustic coding?

This involves repeating the number to yourself


How is a phone number remembered through visual coding?

If you can remember the number through seeing it on a page


What is meant by storage?

The retention of information and the nature of the memory stores


What influences the nature of memory stores?

Where the information is stored

Duration - how long does the memory last for

Capacity - how much information can be stored at any time


How does storage affect retrieval of information?

The way in which information is stored affects the way it is retrieved


How does storage vary in STM and LTM?

It can only be stored briefly from 0 to 30 seconds in STM

It can be stored for a lifetime in LTM


What is involved in retrieval?

This involves getting information out of storage

If something cannot be remembered, it may be because it cannot be retrieved


How is information retrieved in STM?

It is retrieved and stored sequentially

e.g. remembering the 4th word of a list involves going through the list in order until the 4th word is reached


How is memory retrieved in LTM?

It is stored and retrieved by association


What helps to aid information retrieval?

Organising information

e.g. alphabetically, in sequences or by time


What does the multi-store memory model describe?

The flow between 3 permanent storage systems of memory:

1. sensory register
2. STM
3. LTM


What is the sensory register?

It is where information from the senses is stored


How long is information stored in the sensory register?

Around half a second and then it is forgotten


What is meant by the sensory register being 'modality-specific'?

Whichever sense is registered will match the way the information is held


What happens if sensory information is attended to?

It moves into short-term memory for temporary storage

It is encoded visually, acoustically or semantically


What is the capacity and duration of STM?

Capacity of 5 - 9 items

Duration of 30 seconds


How can the capacity of STM be increased?

Through 'chunking'


What will help to retain information in the STM and consolidate it to LTM?

rehearsing information via the articulatory loop


How is information in LTM encoded?

mainly semantically


What is the capacity and duration of LTM?

Information can be stored and retrieved for up to any duration

It has a seemingly unlimited capacity


When asked to remember a list of words, what information is generally recalled better?

Information at the beginning and the end of the list

Information in the middle is commonly forgotten


What is the serial position effect?

Information presented at the beginning and the end of a list of words is recalled better regardless of how many words are in the list