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I & P Year 1 > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (70)
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1

What is the definition of memory?

It is the faculty of the brain by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed

2

How does memory relate to future action?

It is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action

3

How many stages are involved in memory?

A three-stage process

4

What are the three stages of memory?

1. encoding

2. storage

3. retrieval

5

What is encoding?

The process by which we take in information from sensory input and transform it

6

What is the purpose of encoding?

Information needs to be changed into a form that can be stored

7

What are the 3 ways in which information can be encoded (stored)?

1. visual

2. acoustic

3. semantic

8

What is semantic processing?

This involves converting a sensory input into a meaning

9

How is a phone number remembered through acoustic coding?

This involves repeating the number to yourself

10

How is a phone number remembered through visual coding?

If you can remember the number through seeing it on a page

11

What is meant by storage?

The retention of information and the nature of the memory stores

12

What influences the nature of memory stores?

Where the information is stored

Duration - how long does the memory last for

Capacity - how much information can be stored at any time

13

How does storage affect retrieval of information?

The way in which information is stored affects the way it is retrieved

14

How does storage vary in STM and LTM?

It can only be stored briefly from 0 to 30 seconds in STM

It can be stored for a lifetime in LTM

15

What is involved in retrieval?

This involves getting information out of storage

If something cannot be remembered, it may be because it cannot be retrieved

16

How is information retrieved in STM?

It is retrieved and stored sequentially

e.g. remembering the 4th word of a list involves going through the list in order until the 4th word is reached

17

How is memory retrieved in LTM?

It is stored and retrieved by association

18

What helps to aid information retrieval?

Organising information

e.g. alphabetically, in sequences or by time

19

What does the multi-store memory model describe?

The flow between 3 permanent storage systems of memory:

1. sensory register
2. STM
3. LTM

20

What is the sensory register?

It is where information from the senses is stored

21

How long is information stored in the sensory register?

Around half a second and then it is forgotten

22

What is meant by the sensory register being 'modality-specific'?

Whichever sense is registered will match the way the information is held

23

What happens if sensory information is attended to?

It moves into short-term memory for temporary storage

It is encoded visually, acoustically or semantically

24

What is the capacity and duration of STM?

Capacity of 5 - 9 items

Duration of 30 seconds

25

How can the capacity of STM be increased?

Through 'chunking'

26

What will help to retain information in the STM and consolidate it to LTM?

rehearsing information via the articulatory loop

27

How is information in LTM encoded?

mainly semantically

28

What is the capacity and duration of LTM?

Information can be stored and retrieved for up to any duration

It has a seemingly unlimited capacity

29

When asked to remember a list of words, what information is generally recalled better?

Information at the beginning and the end of the list

Information in the middle is commonly forgotten

30

What is the serial position effect?

Information presented at the beginning and the end of a list of words is recalled better regardless of how many words are in the list