Flashcards in Disability, Medicine & Society Deck (41)
What is the 'biomedical' definition of an impairment?
A problem in body function or structure due to a physical loss, disease or condition
What is the 'biomedical' definition of a disability?
Restriction of ability within a range considered normal, resulting from an impairment
What is meant by a social disadvantage?
How are they related to disability?
Social, economic and psychological handicap
A social disadvantage is a consequence of a disability
What does the biomedical approach to disability demonstrate?
1. a starting point is an organic deficit (impairment)
2. functional disability arises from the deficit
3. social and psychological consequences follow
What is the word 'handicap' used to describe in the biomedical definition of disability?
A handicap is a social disadvantage
e.g. being unable to hold a job down means being economically disadvantaged
What is the consequence of disabled people looking 'different' to others?
They have an attribute which is socially discrediting
They are mentally classified by others in an undesirable, rejected stereotype rather than in an accepted normal one
What is the biomedical approach to disability, and the role of medicine within it?
1. individuals with impairments are anomalies, or deviations from a normal healthy state
2. medicine aims to prevent or treat impairment or return the disabled to a state of normal functioning
What term is used to describe returning the disabled to a normal functioning state?
According to the social model, how does impairment relate to disability?
This model rejects impairment as an inevitable cause of disability
How does the social model describe how disadvantages arise?
Disadvantages result less from impairment than society's inability to accommodate difference
How does a disability develop, according to the social model?
Barriers in society disable those with an impairment
What interventions are involved in treating disabled people, according to the social model?
Not just medical intervention or prevention through prenatal screening
What is emphasised through the social model?
Disabled people are not victims of impairment
They are active agents in our society who contribute to their families and society in what should be valued as an equal way
Who developed the social model of disability?
What is meant by the motto "different but not deficient" according to deaf people who do not want cochlea implants?
They find cochlea implants a threat to their unique language and culture
They do not want their deafness "cured"
If someone was to ask:
"Are your difficulties in understanding people mainly due to a hearing problem?"
How would the social model suggest the question be asked?
"Are your difficulties in understanding people mainly due to their inability to communicate with you?"
What are the 4 factors in the environment that act as social barriers, according to the social model of disability?
The environment is inaccessible due to:
What is an example of a communication barrier for a deaf person?
They may leave a GP surgery being unclear about a diagnosis
What is an example of a communication barrier for a blind/visually impaired person?
They may not be able to read the health information that they were provided with
What % of GPs have not received training on how to treat patients with a learning disability?
How do hidden discriminations tend to arise?
Most things are organised and designed around those without impairments
Assumptions around what is the 'norm' can seriously disadvantage some people
According to the social model, what social barriers arise from organisations?
Organisations are inflexible in their procedures and practices
What would be an example of an organisational barrier?
A patient with Crohn's disease working in a call centre where employees are allowed 4 toilet breaks a day
He needs to access the toilet frequently
According to the social model, what social barriers arise from attitudes?
What is the definition of a stereotype?
Over-simplified, widely shared representations of a social group
What is the definition of prejudice?
Affective evaluations associated with stereotypes
These may be positive of negative
What is the definition of discrimination?
Enacted behaviour that is influenced by negative attitudes
How are stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination linked?
Stereotype leads to prejudice
Prejudice leads to discrimination
Discrimination works to maintain the stereotype
According to the 1967 abortion act, what is the condition for abortion, after 24 weeks, relating to disability?
When there is a "substantial risk that if the child were born it would suffer from such physical or mental abnormalities as to be seriously handicapped"