Flashcards in Self and Social Cognition Deck (57)
What is social cognition?
The views that we have of ourselves and what we think other people think of us
What is involved in the cognitive constructs of self and identity?
1. how we think about ourselves
how we are, how we would like to be
2. how we think (and would like) others to see us
How is self-view determined?
It is determined by an individual and collective view
It is self-determined and socially determined (how you think others see you)
How can self-identity be linked to self-esteem?
Self-esteem involves the amount of self-liking, regard and respect
Self-identity can be described through self-esteem
What is self-esteem?
The degree to which an individual holds themselves in reserve
Why does self-esteem have a multi-domain approach?
Individuals have many identities and several competencies
e.g. behaviour around family is different than strangers
What is involved in the low self-esteem cycle?
1. low self-esteem
2. negative expectations
3. low effort, high anxiety
cycle continually repeats itself
How can low self-esteem have effects on patients taking medication?
They have less treatment compliance
They are less likely to turn up to a first appointment and follow through with treatment
What is meant by people with low self-esteem having 'low self-efficacy'?
This means that they perceive that they have very little control over events
How could the self-esteem cycle be explained?
1. person has negative expectations about what they can do and what will happen to them
2. they are anxious about outcomes
3. they put in less effort so failure is more likely
4. they then blame themselves and self-esteem becomes even lower
How do domains of competence influence self-esteem?
The perceived competence in the domains judged important by a particular individual influences overall self-esteem
What are the domains of competence for a child/young adolescent?
1. school work
2. social acceptance
3. sports/athletic ability
4. physical appearance
5. general behaviour
What are the additional domains of competence for a adolescent/young adult?
1. job competence
2. romantic appeal
3. close friendship
If a sub-domain of competence is deemed less important, how does this impact self-esteem?
Overall self-esteem is not compromised
e.g. if you are not good at sport but do not value sporting ability to be important
What is meant by the 'looking glass self' when determining self-esteem?
This involves looking at yourself through a social mirror
You imagine how others perceive you and look at how other people respond to you
Who suggested the social comparison theory?
What is the backbone of Festinger's social comparison theory?
There is an innate drive for self-evaluation
We use social and relationship info to compare ourselves with others
Why does the drive for self-evaluation have an important function?
It validates our own attitudes
We pick a reference group that is very similar or very different to our own attitudes to confirm that they are correct
According to Festinger, why do people compare themselves to others?
We need to make sense of ourselves by comparing ourselves with others
We are selective in those we choose
According to Festinger, what types of people do people chose to compare themselves to?
A reference group is chosen to compare ourselves to
We choose those who are salient, meaningful or regularly encountered (in public eye)
What is the function of the social comparison theory?
1. validates own attitudes and behaviours
2. maintains self-esteem
What is meant by a 'self-serving bias' in the social comparison theory?
Unrealistic optimism and unrealistic positive self views
This is brought about by having a selective reference group
What is meant by the Lake Wobegon effect?
It is our tendency to overestimate our achievements and capabilities, especially in relation to others
What was involved in Weinstein's unrealistic optimism study?
Asked students the likelihood of experiencing future events
What was the results of Weinstein's unrealistic optimism study?
The students had unrealistic optimism about what would happen in the future
They said they were likely to experience desirable events (e.g. job after graduation)
They were unlikely to experience undesirable events (e.g. divorce, losing job)
In what ways is unrealistic optimism less apparent in people with depression?
People with depression are more clued in to what really happens in life
They are more aware of the likelihood of both bad and good things happening to them
What is meant by upwards vs downward comparison in the social comparison theory?
Selecting the reference group means the groups are chosen based on whether we want to make upward or downward comparisons
This influences self-esteem maintenance
How does the media influence self-esteem?
The media invites social comparisons, which can be positive and negative
Mainly comparing yourself to people who look 'desirable'
What are the benefits of social media?
It can be used for communication/contact, information and liberation